Frontiers in Energy

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 163–171 | Cite as

Flame-retardant properties of in situ sol-gel synthesized inorganic borosilicate/silicate polymer scaffold matrix comprising ionic liquid

  • Kumar Sai Smaran
  • Rajashekar Badam
  • Raman VedarajanEmail author
  • Noriyoshi Matsumi
Research Article


This paper focuses on the superiority of organic-inorganic hybrid ion-gel electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) over commercial electrolytes, such as 1 M LiPF6 in 1:1 ethylene carbonate (EC): dimethyl carbonate (DMC) {1 M LiPF6-EC: DMC}, in terms of their flame susceptibility. These ion-gel electrolytes possess ionic liquid monomers, which are confined within the borosilicate or silicate matrices that are ideal for nonflammability. Naked flame tests confirm that the organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes are less susceptible to flames, and these electrolytes do not suffer from a major loss in terms of weight. In addition, the hybrids are self-extinguishable. Therefore, these hybrids are only oxidized when subjected to a flame unlike other commercial electrolytes used in lithium-ion batteries. Supplementary analyses using differential scanning calorimetric studies reveal that the hybrids are glassy until the temperature reaches more than 100°C. The current results are consistent with previously published data on the organic-inorganic hybrids.


inorganic polymeric borosilicate network organic-inorganic hybrids self-extinguishability nonflammability lithium batteries flame-retardants 


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This work was supported by the MEXT scholarship of the Japanese Government. The authors wish to thank Prof. Vito Di Noto of the University of Padova, Italy for helping with the DSC measurements.


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Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kumar Sai Smaran
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rajashekar Badam
    • 1
    • 3
  • Raman Vedarajan
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Noriyoshi Matsumi
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Materials ScienceJapan Advanced Institute of Science and TechnologyIshikawaJapan
  2. 2.Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Humanities and SciencesOchanomizu UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Surface Science LaboratoryToyota Technological InstituteTempaku NagoyaJapan
  4. 4.Centre for Fuel Cell TechnologyInternational Advanced Research Center for Powder Metallurgy and New MaterialsChennaiIndia

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