Seasonal variation of the global mixed layer depth: comparison between Argo data and FIO-ESM
- 51 Downloads
The present study evaluates a simulation of the global ocean mixed layer depth (MLD) using the First Institute of Oceanography-Earth System Model (FIOESM). The seasonal variation of the global MLD from the FIO-ESM simulation is compared to Argo observational data. The Argo data show that the global ocean MLD has a strong seasonal variation with a deep MLD in winter and a shallow MLD in summer, while the spring and fall seasons act as transitional periods. Overall, the FIO-ESM simulation accurately captures the seasonal variation in MLD in most areas. It exhibits a better performance during summer and fall than during winter and spring. The simulated MLD in the Southern Hemisphere is much closer to observations than that in the Northern Hemisphere. In general, the simulated MLD over the South Atlantic Ocean matches the observation best among the six areas. Additionally, the model slightly underestimates the MLD in parts of the North Atlantic Ocean, and slightly overestimates the MLD over the other ocean basins.
Keywordsmixed layer depth FIO-ESM model seasonal variation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
The present study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41476022 and 41490643), the Startup Foundation for Introducing Talent of Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (2013r121, 2014r072), the Program for Innovation Research and Entrepreneurship team in Jiangsu Province, and the National Programme on Global Change and Air-Sea Interaction (No. GASI- 03-IPOVAI-05). Appreciation is extended to the anonymous reviewers and the editors for their valuable comments.
- An Y Z, Zhang R, Wang H Z (2012). Study on calculation and spatiotemporal variations of global ocean mixed layer depth. Chin J Geophys, 55(7): 2249–2258 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Collins W D, Rasch P J, Boville B A (2004). Description of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.0). National Center for Atmospheric Research, tn-464 + str: tn-485 + strGoogle Scholar
- de Boyer Montégut C, Gurvan M, Fischer A S (2004). Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: an examination of profile data and a profilebased climatology. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 109 (C12): C12003Google Scholar
- Huang C J, Qiao F L, Dai D (2014). Evaluating CMIP5 simulations of mixed layer depth during summer. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 119(4): 2568–2582Google Scholar
- Huang C J, Qiao F L, Shu Q, Song Z (2012). Evaluating austral summer mixed-layer response to surface wave-induced mixing in the Southern Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 117 (C11): 24–33Google Scholar
- Huang C J, Qiao F L, Song Z Y (2008). The effect of the wave-induced mixing on the upper ocean temperature in a climate model. Acta Oceanol Sin, 27(3): 104–111Google Scholar
- Kelly K A, Qiu B (1995). Heat flux estimates for the Western North Atlantic. Part I: Assimilation of satellite data into a mixed layer model. J Phys Oceanogr, 25(10): 2344–2360Google Scholar
- Lu J, Qiao F L, Wei Z X (2008). Study on distributions of mixed layer depth in the world ocean in summer—Comparison between Argo data and Levitus data. Advanced in Marine Science, 26(2): 145–155 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Oleson K, Niu G, Yang Z (2008). Improvements to the Community Land Model and their impact on the hydrological cycle. J Geophys Res, D, Atmospheres, 113(113): 811–827Google Scholar
- Perry A H, Walker J M (1977). The Ocean-Atmosphere System. New York: Long-man Inc, 1–160Google Scholar
- Qiao F L, Huang C J (2012). Comparison between vertical shear mixing and surface wave-induced mixing in the extratropical ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 117(C11): C00J16Google Scholar
- Qiao F L, Song Z Y, Bao Y (2013). Development and evaluation of an Earth System Model with surface gravity waves. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 118(9): 4514–4524Google Scholar
- Qiao F L, Yang Y, Xia C (2008). The role of surface waves in the ocean mixed layer. Marine Journal: English edition, 18(3): 30–37Google Scholar
- Shu Q, Qiao F L, Song Z Y (2013). The hindcast and forcast of Arctic sea ice from FIO-ESM. Acta Oceanol Sin, 35(5): 37–45Google Scholar
- Smith R, Jones P, Briegleb B (2010). The Parallel Ocean Program (POP) reference manual. Los Alamos National Laboratory, LAUR-10-01853Google Scholar
- Thomson R E, Fine I V (2010). Estimating mixed layer depth from oceanic profile data. J Atmos Ocean Technol, 20(20): 319–329Google Scholar
- Yang Y Z, Qiao F L, Zhao W (2005). MASNUM ocean wave numerical model in spherical coordinates and its application. Acta Oceanol Sin, 27(2): 1–7Google Scholar