Source of atmospheric moisture and precipitation over China’s major river basins
- 109 Downloads
Oceanic evaporation via the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) has been regarded as the major source of precipitation over China, but a recent study estimated that terrestrial evaporation might contribute up to 80% of the precipitation in the country. To explain the contradiction, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the contribution of oceanic and terrestrial evaporation to atmospheric moisture and precipitation in China’s major river basins. The results show that from 1980 to 2010, the mean annual atmospheric moisture (precipitable water) over China was 13.7 mm, 39% of which originates from oceanic evaporation and 61% from terrestrial evaporation. The mean annual precipitation was 737 mm, 43% of which originates from oceanic evaporation and 57% from terrestrial evaporation. Oceanic evaporation makes a greater contribution to atmospheric moisture and precipitation in the East Asian Monsoon Region in South and East China than terrestrial evaporation does. Particularly, for the Pearl River and southeastern rivers, oceanic evaporation contributes approximately 65% of annual precipitation and more than 70% of summer precipitation. Meanwhile, terrestrial evaporation contributes more precipitation in northwest China due to the westerly wind. For the northwestern rivers, terrestrial evaporation from the Eurasian continents contributes more than 70% of precipitation. There is a linear relation between mean annual precipitation and the contribution of oceanic evaporation to precipitation, with a correlation coefficient of 0.92, among the ten major river basins in China.
Keywordsoceanic evaporation terrestrial evaporation moisture transport East Asian Monsoon westerly wind Tibetan Plateau
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Dee D P, Uppala S M, Simmons A J, Berrisford P, Poli P, Kobayashi S, Andrae U, Balmaseda M A, Balsamo G, Bauer P, Bechtold P, Beljaars A C M, van de Berg L, Bidlot J, Bormann N, Delsol C, Dragani R, Fuentes M, Geer A J, Haimberger L, Healy S B, Hersbach H, Hólm E V, Isaksen L, Kållberg P, Köhler M, Matricardi M, McNally A P, Monge-Sanz B M, Morcrette J J, Park B K, Peubey C, de Rosnay P, Tavolato C, Thépaut J N, Vitart F (2011). The ERAInterim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q J R Meteorol Soc, 137(656): 553–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ding Y H, Chan J C L (2005). The East Asian summer monsoon: an overview. Meteorol Atmos Phys, 89(1–4): 117–142Google Scholar
- Gevorgyan A (2013). Verification of daily precipitation amount forecasts in Armenia by ERA-Interim model. Int J Climatol, 33(12): 2706–2712Google Scholar
- Huang R, Chen J (2010). Characteristics of the summertime water vapor transports over the eastern part of China and those over the western part of China and their difference. Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 34(6): 1035–1046Google Scholar
- van der Ent R J, Savenije H H G, Schaefli B, Steele-Dunne S C (2010). Origin and fate of atmospheric moisture over continents. Water Resour Res, 46, W09525, doi: 10.1029/2010WR009127Google Scholar
- Wei J F, Dirmeyer P A, Bosilovich M G, Wu R G (2012). Water vapor sources for Yangtze River Valley rainfall: climatology, variability, and implications for rainfall forecasting. J Geophys Res, D, Atmospheres, 117(D5), doi: 10.1029/2011JD016902Google Scholar