Frontiers of Earth Science

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 111–119 | Cite as

Federated or cached searches: Providing expected performance from multiple invasive species databases

  • Jim Graham
  • Catherine S. Jarnevich
  • Annie Simpson
  • Gregory J. Newman
  • Thomas J. Stohlgren
Research Article


Invasive species are a universal global problem, but the information to identify them, manage them, and prevent invasions is stored around the globe in a variety of formats. The Global Invasive Species Information Network is a consortium of organizations working toward providing seamless access to these disparate databases via the Internet. A distributed network of databases can be created using the Internet and a standard web service protocol. There are two options to provide this integration. First, federated searches are being proposed to allow users to search “deep” web documents such as databases for invasive species. A second method is to create a cache of data from the databases for searching. We compare these two methods, and show that federated searches will not provide the performance and flexibility required from users and a central cache of the datum are required to improve performance.


design performance invasive species web services databases federated search search engine 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baeza-Yates R, Gionis A, Junqueira F P, Murdock V, Plachouras V, Silvestri F (2008). Design Trade-Offs for Search Engine Caching. Acm Transactions on the Web (TWEB), 2(4)Google Scholar
  2. Casal C M V (2006). Global documentation of fish introductions: the growing crisis and recommendations for action. Biol Invasions, 8(1): 3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Committee on the Scientific Basis for Predicting the Invasive Potential of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests in the United States (2002). Predicting Invasions of Nonindigenous Plants and Plant Pests. National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, 198Google Scholar
  4. Crall A W, Meyerson L A, Stohlgren T J, Jarnevich C S, Newman G J, Graham J (2006). Show me the numbers: What data currently exist for non-native species in the USA? Front Ecol Environ, 4(8): 414–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Curcin V, Ghanem M, Guo Y (2005). Web services in the life sciences. Drug Discov Today, 10(12): 865–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. de Giovanni R, Doering M, de la Torre J (2006). TAPIR 1.0. In: Proceedings of TDWGGoogle Scholar
  7. Edwards J L (2004). Research and societal benefits of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Bioscience, 54(6): 486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fan J C, Kambhampati S (2005). A snapshot of public web services. SIGMOD Rec, 34(1): 24–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fox E A, Gonçalves M A, Luo M, Chen Y, Krowne A, Zhang B, McDevitt K, Ñones M P Q, Richardson R, Cassel L N (2004). Harvesting: Broadening the field of distributed information retrieval. Distributed Multimedia Information Retrieval, 2924: 1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Graham J, Simpson A, Crall A, Jarnevich C, Newman G, Stohlgren T J (2008). Vision of a cyberinfrastructure for nonnative, invasive species management. Bioscience, 58(3): 263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Halpin P N, Read A J, Best B D, Hyrenbach K D, Fujioka E, Coyne MS, Crowder L B, Freeman S A, Spoerri C (2006). OBIS-SEAMAP: developing a biogeographic research data commons for the ecological studies of marine mammals, seabirds, and sea turtles. Mar Ecol Prog Ser, 316: 239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jacsó P (2004). Thoughts About Federated Searching. Information Today 21(9) October, 2004, p.17Google Scholar
  13. Mack R N, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Evans H, Clout M, Bazzaz F A (2000). Biotic invasions: Causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol Appl, 10(3): 689–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martens A (2005). Analyzing Web service based business processes. Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering. Proceedings, 3442: 19–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nielsen J (2000). Designing Web Usability. New Riders PublishingGoogle Scholar
  16. Pearson J M, Pearson A M (2008). An exploratory study into determining the relative importance of key criteria in Web usability: A multi-criteria approach. J Comput Inf Syst, 48: 115–127Google Scholar
  17. Pimentel D, Zuniga R, Morrison D (2005). Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States. Ecol Econ, 52: 273–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Vieglais D (2006). The Big Dig. In: Proceedings of TDWG2006Google Scholar
  19. Wilcove D S, Rothstein D, Dubow J, Phillips A, Losos E (1998). Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States. Bioscience, 48(8): 607–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jim Graham
    • 1
  • Catherine S. Jarnevich
    • 2
  • Annie Simpson
    • 3
  • Gregory J. Newman
    • 4
  • Thomas J. Stohlgren
    • 2
  1. 1.Natural Resource Ecology LaboratoryColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  2. 2.United States Geological Survey Fort Collins Science CenterFort CollinsUSA
  3. 3.United States Geological Survey HeadquartersRestonUSA
  4. 4.Natural Resource Ecology LaboratoryColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations