Advertisement

Frontiers of Materials Science

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 157–167 | Cite as

Tailoring properties of reticulated vitreous carbon foams with tunable density

  • Oleg SmorygoEmail author
  • Alexander Marukovich
  • Vitali Mikutski
  • Vassilis Stathopoulos
  • Siarhei Hryhoryeu
  • Vladislav Sadykov
Research Article

Abstract

Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foams were manufactured by multiple replications of a polyurethane foam template structure using ethanolic solutions of phenolic resin. The aims were to create an algorithm of fine tuning the precursor foam density and ensure an open-cell reticulated porous structure in a wide density range. The precursor foams were pyrolyzed in inert atmospheres at 700°C, 1100°C and 2000°C, and RVC foams with fully open cells and tunable bulk densities within 0.09–0.42 g/cm3 were synthesized. The foams were characterized in terms of porous structure, carbon lattice parameters, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity, and corrosive resistance. The reported manufacturing approach is suitable for designing the foam microstructure, including the strut design with a graded microstructure.

Keywords

foam vitreous carbon reticulated cellular structure pyrolysis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Friedrich J M, Ponce-de-Leon C, Reade G W, et al. Reticulated vitreous carbon as an electrode material. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2004, 561: 203–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Czarnecki J S, Blackmore M, Jolivet S, et al. Bone growth on Reticulated Vitreous Carbon foam scaffolds and implementation of Cellular Automata modeling as a predictive tool. Carbon, 2014, 79: 135–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Banerjee A, Saha D, Guru Row T N, et al. A soluble-lead redox flow battery with corrugated graphite sheet and reticulated vitreous carbon as positive and negative current collectors. Bulletin of Materials Science, 2013, 36(1): 163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Chakhovskoi A G, Hunt C E, Forsberg G, et al. Reticulated vitreous carbon field emission cathodes for light source applications. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, 2003, 21(1): 571–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Gallego N C, Klett J W. Carbon foams for thermal management. Carbon, 2003, 41(7): 1461–1466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Li Q, Batchelor-McAuley C, Lawrence N S, et al. A flow system for hydrogen peroxide production at reticulated vitreous carbon via electroreduction of oxygen. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 2014, 18(5): 1215–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Xiao N, Zhou Y, Ling Z, et al. Carbon foams made of in situ produced carbon nanocapsules and the use as a catalyst for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. Carbon, 2013, 60: 514–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Gokhale A A, Kumar N V R, Sudhakar B, et al. Cellular metals and ceramics for defence applications. Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(5): 567–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Xiao N, Zhou Y, Ling Z, et al. Synthesis of a carbon nanofiber/ carbon foam composite from coal liquefaction residue for the separation of oil and water. Carbon, 2013, 59: 530–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Letellier M, Macutkevic J, Paddubskaya A, et al. Microwave dielectric properties of tannin-based carbon foams. Ferroelectrics, 2015, 479(1): 119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Xiao N, Ling Z, Zhou Y, et al. Synthesis and structure of carbon belts made of carbon nanofibers supported on carbon foams. Carbon, 2013, 61: 386–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Goncalves E S, Dalmolin C, Biaggio S R, et al. Influence of heat treatment temperature on the morphological and structural aspects of reticulated vitreous carbon used in polyaniline electrosynthesis. Applied Surface Science, 2007, 253(20): 8340–8344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Manocha S M, Patel K, Manocha L M. Development of carbon foam from phenolic resin via template route. Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Science., 2010, 17(5): 338–342Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Inagaki M, Qiu J S, Guo Q G. Carbon foam: preparation and application. Carbon, 2015, 87: 128–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Cowlard F C, Lewis J C. Vitreous carbon–a new form of carbon. Journal of Materials Science, 1967, 2(6): 507–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Smorygo O, Marukovich A, Mikutski V, et al. Macrocellular vitreous carbon with the improved mechanical strength. Frontiers of Materials Science, 2015, 9(4): 413–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Zhang Y, Yuan Z, Zhou Y. Effect of furfural alcohol/phenolformaldehyde resin mass ratio on the properties of porous carbon. Materials Letters, 2013, 109: 124–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Martinez de Yuso A, Lagel M C, Pizzi A, et al. Structure and properties of rigid foams derived from quebracho tannin. Materials & Design, 2014, 63: 208–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Tondi G, Fierro V, Pizzi A, et al. Tannin-based carbon foams. Carbon, 2009, 47(6): 1480–1492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    ERG Materials and Aerospace Corporation. 900 Stanford Avenue, Oakland, CA 94608, USA: Duocel® reticulated vitreous carbon foam datasheetGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Ultramet. Advanced Materials Solutions. 12173 Montague Street, Pacoima CA 91331, USA: Reticulated vitreous carbon foam datasheetGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Ashby M F. The properties of foams and lattices. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 2006, 364(1838): 15–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Smorygo O, Mikutski V, Marukovich A, et al. An inverted spherical model of an open-cell foam structure. Acta Materialia, 2011, 59(7): 2669–2678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Jana P, Fierro V, Pizzi A, et al. Thermal conductivity improvement of composite carbon foams based on tannin-based disordered carbon matrix and graphite fillers. Materials & Design, 2015, 83: 635–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Pekala W R, Hopper R W. Low-density microcellular carbon foams. Journal of Materials Science, 1987, 22(5): 1840–1844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Leonov A N, Smorygo O L, Sheleg V K. Monolithic catalyst supports with foam structure. Reaction Kinetics and Catalysis Letters, 1997, 60(2): 259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Klug H P, Alexander L E. X-ray Diffraction Procedures for Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1974Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Kurauchi T, Sato N, Kamigaito O, et al. Mechanism of high energy absorption by foamed materials-foamed rigid polyurethane and foamed glass. Journal of Materials Science, 1984, 19(3): 871–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Gibson L J, Ashby M F. The mechanics of three-dimensional cellular materials. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, 1782, 1982(382): 43–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Brezny R, Green D. Fracture behavior of open-cell ceramics. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 1989, 72(7): 1145–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Li X, Basso M C, Braghiroli F L, et al. Tailoring the structure of cellular vitreous carbon foams. Carbon, 2012, 50(5): 2026–2036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Szczurek A, Fierro V, Pizzi A, et al. Carbon meringues derived from flavanoid tannins. Carbon, 2013, 65: 214–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Klett JW, McMillan A D, Gallego N C, et al. The role of structure on the thermal properties of graphitic foams. Journal of Materials Science, 2004, 39(11): 3659–3676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Nakamura K, Morooka H, Tanabe Y, et al. Surface oxidation and/or corrosion behavior of glass-like carbon in sulfuric and nitric acids, and in aqueous hydrogen peroxide. Corrosion Science, 2011, 53(12): 4010–4013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Nakamura K, Tanabe Y, Yasuda E. Analysis of the oxidation behavior of neat and Ta-alloyed glass-like carbons heat-treated at 1200 and 3000°C by nitric, sulfuric and hydrofluoric acid. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2006, 414(1–2): 186–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oleg Smorygo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexander Marukovich
    • 1
  • Vitali Mikutski
    • 1
  • Vassilis Stathopoulos
    • 2
  • Siarhei Hryhoryeu
    • 3
  • Vladislav Sadykov
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Powder Metallurgy InstituteNational Academy of Sciences of BelarusMinskBelarus
  2. 2.Technological Educational Institute of Sterea ElladaPsahna EviasGreece
  3. 3.Belarusian National Technical UniversityMinskBelarus
  4. 4.Boreskov Institute of CatalysisSibrian Branch of Russian Academy of SciencesNovosibirskRussia
  5. 5.Novosibirsk State UniversityNovosibirskRussia

Personalised recommendations