Frontiers of Chemical Engineering in China

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 240–249 | Cite as

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of wheat bran flour into ethanol using coculture of amylotic Aspergillus niger and thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus

Research Article


Studies on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of wheat bran flour, a grain milling residue as the substrate using coculture method were carried out with strains of starch digesting Aspergillus niger and nonstarch digesting and sugar fermenting Kluyveromyces marxianus in batch fermentation. Experiments based on central composite design (CCD) were conducted to maximize the glucose yield and to study the effects of substrate concentration, pH, temperature, and enzyme concentration on percentage conversion of wheat bran flour starch to glucose by treatment with fungal α-amylase and the above parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum values of substrate concentration, pH, temperature, and enzyme concentration were found to be 200 g/L, 5.5, 65°C and 7.5 IU, respectively, in the starch saccharification step. The effects of pH, temperature and substrate concentration on ethanol concentration, biomass and reducing sugar concentration were also investigated. The optimum temperature and pH were found to be 30°C and 5.5, respectively. The wheat bran flour solution equivalent to 6% (w/V) initial starch concentration gave the highest ethanol concentration of 23.1 g/L after 48 h of fermentation at optimum conditions of pH and temperature. The growth kinetics was modeled using Monod model and Logistic model and product formation kinetics using Leudeking-Piret model. Simultaneous saccharificiation and fermentation of liquefied wheat bran starch to bioethanol was studied using coculture of amylolytic fungus A. niger and nonamylolytic sugar fermenting K. marxianus.


simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) starch coculture fermentation statistical experimental design bioethanol Monod model 


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© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bioprocess Laboratory, Department of Chemical EngineeringAnnamalai UniversityAnnamalai NagarIndia

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