Frontiers of Computer Science

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 331–350 | Cite as

Evolutionary under-sampling based bagging ensemble method for imbalanced data classification

  • Bo Sun
  • Haiyan Chen
  • Jiandong Wang
  • Hua Xie
Research Article


In the class imbalanced learning scenario, traditional machine learning algorithms focusing on optimizing the overall accuracy tend to achieve poor classification performance especially for the minority class in which we are most interested. To solve this problem, many effective approaches have been proposed. Among them, the bagging ensemble methods with integration of the under-sampling techniques have demonstrated better performance than some other ones including the bagging ensemble methods integrated with the over-sampling techniques, the cost-sensitive methods, etc. Although these under-sampling techniques promote the diversity among the generated base classifiers with the help of random partition or sampling for the majority class, they do not take any measure to ensure the individual classification performance, consequently affecting the achievability of better ensemble performance. On the other hand, evolutionary under-sampling EUS as a novel undersampling technique has been successfully applied in searching for the best majority class subset for training a good-performance nearest neighbor classifier. Inspired by EUS, in this paper, we try to introduce it into the under-sampling bagging framework and propose an EUS based bagging ensemble method EUS-Bag by designing a new fitness function considering three factors to make EUS better suited to the framework. With our fitness function, EUS-Bag could generate a set of accurate and diverse base classifiers. To verify the effectiveness of EUS-Bag, we conduct a series of comparison experiments on 22 two-class imbalanced classification problems. Experimental results measured using recall, geometric mean and AUC all demonstrate its superior performance.


class imbalanced problem under-sampling bagging evolutionary under-sampling ensemble learning machine learning data mining 


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We would like to express our gratitude to both the associate editor and the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments that improved the quality of our manuscript to a large extent. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.61501229) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (NS2015091, NS2014067, NJ20160013).

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material, approximately 350 KB.


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Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Computer Science and TechnologyNanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsNanjingChina
  2. 2.National Key Lab of ATFMNanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsNanjingChina

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