Frontiers of Agriculture in China

, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 438–443 | Cite as

Effect of Glomus versiforme inoculation on reactive oxygen metabolism of Citrus tangerine leaves exposed to water stress

  • Wu Qiangsheng 
  • Zou Yingning 
  • Xia Renxue Email author
Research Article


In a potted greenhouse experiment, Citrus tangerine Hort. ex Tanaka was inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus versiforme (Karsten) Berch, or non-AM fungus as control. Arbuscular mycorrhizal and non-AM seedlings were grown under well-watered or water-stressed conditions after 97 days of acclimation. The reactive oxygen metabolism of C. tangerine leaves was studied in order to elucidate whether AM symbiosis affects enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. The results showed that water stress caused a decrement of 33% for the colonization of G. versiforme on C. tangerine roots. Under well-watered and water-stressed conditions, G. versiforme inoculation increased the leaf phosphorus (P) content by 45% and 27%, and decreased the leaf malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents by 25% and 21%, and 16% and 16%, respectively, compared with the control. Inoculation with G. versiforme enhanced the activities of leaf superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, and increased the contents of leaf soluble protein, ascorbate and total ascorbate notably, regardless of soil moisture conditions. Under water-stressed conditions, G. versiforme inoculation decreased the leaf superoxide anion radical (O 2 ·− ) content by 31%. It is concluded that drought resistance of C. tangerine leaves is enhanced due to the improvement of reactive oxygen metabolism after G. versiforme inoculation.


arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Citrus tangerine water stress reactive oxygen species 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alguacil M M, Hernandez J A, Caravaca F, Portillo B, Roldán A (2003). Antioxidant enzyme activities in shoots from three mycorrhizal shrub species afforested in a degraded semi-arid soil. Physiol Plant, 118: 562–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen J X, Wang X F (2002). Experimental Instruction of Plant Physiology. Guangzhou: South China University of Technology Press, 120–123 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. Chen L S, Liu X H (1998). Effects of water stress on active oxygen metabolism in litchi leaves. Acta Horticultural Sinica, 25(3): 241–246 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. Duan X, Neuman D S, Reiber J M, Green C D, Saxton A M, Augé R M (1996). Mycorrhizal influence on hydraulic and hormonal factors involved in the control of stomatal conductance during drought. J Exp Bot, 47: 1,541–1,550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Faber B A, Zasoski B J, Munns D N, Schackel K (1991). A method for measuring hyphal nutrient and water uptake in mycorrhizal plants. Can J Bot, 69: 87–94Google Scholar
  6. Gadkar V, David-Schwartz R, Kunik T, Kapulnik Y (2001). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization factors involved in host recognition. Plant Physiol, 127: 1,493–1,499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Graham J H, Syvertsen J P (1984). Influence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza on the hydraulic conductivity of roots of two citrus rootstocks. New Phytol, 97: 277–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hsiao T C (1973). Plant responses to water stress. Plant Physiol, 24: 519–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. John M K (1970). Colorimetric determination of phosphorus in soil and plant material with ascorbic acid. Soil Sci, 11: 214–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lambais M R, Rios-Ruiz W E, Andrade R M (2003). Antioxidant response in bean (Phaseolus valgaris) roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol, 160: 421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Levine A, Tenhaken R, Dixon R, Lamb C (1994). H2O2 from the oxidative burst orchestrates the plant hypersensitive disease resistance response. Cell, 79: 583–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Levy Y, Krikun J (1980). Effect of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza on Citrus jambhiri water relations. New Phytol, 85: 25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li H S (2000). Principles and Techniques of Plant Physiological Biochemical Experiment. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 164–165, 167–169, 195–197, 260–261 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. Lin Z F, Li S S, Lin G Z, Guo J Y (1988). The accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in senescing leaves and chloroplasts in relation to lipid peroxidation. Acta Phytophysiol Sin, 14(1): 16–22 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. Luo H J, Liu X H, Xie H C (1999). Effects of water stress on activated oxygen metabolism in loquat leaves. Journal of Fujian Agricultural University, 28(1): 33–37 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. Nelsen C E, Safir G R (1982). Increased drought tolerance of mycorrhizal onion plants caused by improved phosphorus nutrition. Planta, 154: 407–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Noctor G (1998). Ascorbate and glutathione: Keeping active oxygen under control. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol, 49: 249–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Palma J M, Longa M A, del Río L A, Arines J (1993). Superoxide dismutase in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal red clover plants. Physiol Plant, 87: 77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Phillips J M, Hayman D S (1970). Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Trans Bri Mycol Soc, 55: 158–161Google Scholar
  20. Porcel R, Aroca R, Azcón R, Ruiz-Lozano J M (2006). PIP aquaporin gene expression in arbuscular mycorrhizal Glycine max and Lactuca sativa plants in relation to drought stress tolerance. Plant Mol Biol, 60: 389–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Porcel R, Azcón R, Ruiz-Lozano J M (2004). Evaluation of the role of genes encoding for Delta (1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) during drought stress in arbuscular mycorrhizal Glycine max and Lactuca sativa plants. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol, 65: 211–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Porcel R, Azcón R, Ruiz-Lozano J M (2005). Evaluation of the role of genes encoding for dehydrin proteins (LEA D-11) during drought stress in arbuscular mycorrhizal Glycine max and Lactuca sativa plants. J Exp Bot, 56: 1933–1942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Porcel R, Ruiz-Lozano J M (2004). Arbuscular mycorrhizal influence on leaf water potential, solute accumulation, and oxidative stress in soybean plants subjected to drought stress. J Exp Bot, 55: 1743–1750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ramachandra R A, Chaitanya K V, Jutur P P, Sumithra K (2004). Differential antioxidative responses to water stress among five mulberry (Morus alba L.) cultivars. Environ Exp Bot, 52: 33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ruiz-Lozano J M, Azcón R (1995). Hyphal contribution to water uptake in mycorrhizal plants as affected by the fungal species and water status. Physiol Plant, 95: 472–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ruiz-Lozano J M, Azcón R, Palma J M (1996). Superoxide dismutase activity in arbuscular-mycorrhizal Lactuca sativa L. plants subjected to drought stress. New Phytol, 134: 327–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ruiz-Lozano J M, Collados C, Barea J M, Azcón R (2001). Cloning of cDNAs encoding SODs from lettuce plants which show differential regulation by arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and by drought stress. J Exp Bot, 52: 2241–2242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Salzer P, Corbiere H, Boller T (1999). Hydrogen peroxide accumulation in Medicago truncatula roots colonized by the arbuscular mycorrhiza forming fungus Glomus intraradices. Planta, 208: 319–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang A G, Luo G H (1990). Quantitative relation between the reaction of hydroxylamine and superoxide anion radicals in plants. Plant Physiology Communication, 16(6): 55–57 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. Wu Q S, Xia R X (2004a). Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant growth and osmotic adjustment matter content of trifoliate orange seedling under water stress. Journal plant Physiology and Molecular Biology, 30(5): 583–588 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. Wu Q S, Xia R X (2004b). The relation between vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza and water metabolism in plants. Chin Agric Sci Bull, 20(1): 188–192 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  32. Wu Q S, Xia R X (2005). Effects of AM fungi on drought tolerance of citrus grafting seedling trifoliate orange/cara. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 16(5): 865–869 (in Chinese)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Wu Q S, Xia R X (2006). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence growth, osmotic adjustment and photosynthesis of citrus under well-watered and water stress conditions. J Plant Physiol, 163: 417–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wu Q S, Xia R X, Hu Z J (2006a). Effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on the drought tolerance of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Front For China, 1: 100–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wu Q S, Xia R X, Zou Y N (2006b). Reactive oxygen metabolism in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal citrus (Poncirus trifoliata) seedings subjected to water stress. J Plant Physiol, 163: 1101–1110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wu Qiangsheng 
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zou Yingning 
    • 2
  • Xia Renxue 
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Horticulture and ForestryHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.College of Horticulture and GardeningYangtze UniversityJingzhouChina

Personalised recommendations