Training of laparoscopic novices both individually and in dyads using a simulation task
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Non-technical skill training improves outcomes in surgery and quantifying the effects of this training may aid in designing surgical teaching models. In our study, 12 novices performed a wire-chaser laparoscopic task in 9 training sessions, working both as individuals and dyads. Task duration (p < 0.001), number of ring-wire contacts (p < 0.001), total duration of contact (p < 0.001), and number of pick up attempts (p = 0.044) all showed significant improvement in both groups with no significant difference in the learning curves between individuals and dyads. There was, however, an interaction effect for the number of ring-wire contacts (p = 0.027) whereby the number of contacts dropped more dramatically among dyads. Dyads also performed significantly more anticipatory movements than individuals (p = 0.005). Novices performed similarly when working individually and as dyads, suggesting that the need for collaboration neither hindered nor helped performance for our particular task.
KeywordsSimulation training Surgical skills Team collaboration Team performance Laparoscopy Task performance and analysis
The authors would like to thank Bo Bao for his assistance with data collection. We also thank the Royal Alexandra Hospital Foundation for supporting this project through the MIS (Minimally Invasive Surgery) Research Program.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Francesca Seal, Wenjing He, David Pinzon, and Bin Zheng declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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