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Electrochemical fabrication of cobalt films in a choline chloride–ethylene glycol deep eutectic solvent containing water

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Abstract

The electrodeposition of cobalt from alternative electrolytes, including ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents (DES), has become a topic of great interest to the scientific community, with a significant impact in both academic circles and in the development of commercial industrial electrochemical processes. However, very few studies have considered the effects of water on the electrodeposition of metals from deep eutectic solvents. In this work, the electrodeposition of Co from a choline chloride (ChCl) ethylene glycol (EG)-based deep eutectic solvent (DES) containing 10%, 20% and 30% water has been studied, and for the first time a uniform and bright Co deposit has been obtained when the deposition was achieved from an electrolyte containing 20% water. The speciation of Co in a mixed 1:2 ChCl:EG-based liquid (Ethaline 200) has been studied in both the absence and presence of water. The conductivities of the Co electrolyte were increased with increasing amounts of water. The electrochemical properties of the Co electrolytes have been studied using cyclic voltammetry, where it was found that the redox peak current gets larger and shifts in a positive direction when water was included in the Co solution. The resultant surface morphologies, topography, and roughness of the Co deposits were revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), which demonstrated that a highly uniform and smooth cobalt coating had been produced when the deposition occurred in Ethaline 200 containing 20% water.

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Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge the University of Kerbala, Kufa and Koya for providing the required materials and instruments for this work. They would also like to thank Dr. Mark Watkins for notable comments and for proofreading the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Hasan F. Alesary.

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Al-Murshedi, A.Y.M., Al-Yasari, A., Alesary, H.F. et al. Electrochemical fabrication of cobalt films in a choline chloride–ethylene glycol deep eutectic solvent containing water. Chem. Pap. 74, 699–709 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11696-019-01025-z

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Keywords

  • Electrodeposition
  • Cobalt
  • Deep eutectic solvents
  • Additives (water)