Chemical Papers

, Volume 74, Issue 2, pp 509–520 | Cite as

Synthesis of chitosan, pectin, and chitosan/pectin microspheres by two water-in-oil emulsion crosslinking methods

  • Randall Chacón-CerdasEmail author
  • Alejandro Medaglia-Mata
  • Dora Flores-Mora
  • Ricardo Starbird-Pérez
Original Paper


Structuration of biopolymers to provide a smart response in biological systems is of great interest considering potential applications in agriculture, pharmaceutics, and food industry. Namely, chitosan, pectin, and chitosan/pectin particles were obtained by one-step water-in-oil emulsion and water-in-oil emulsion-dehydration by crosslinking methodologies using glutaraldehyde and calcium chloride, correspondingly. Through our methodologies it was possible to obtain well-defined spherical particles with average sizes below two micrometers. In general, glutaraldehyde-crosslinked particles were larger than ionic crosslinked ones. The particle size and morphology of the materials were characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering and Scanning Electron Microscopy and the covalent and ionic interactions were determined by Infrared Spectroscopy. In most cases, we improved the size and/or morphology of the particles compared to base methodologies, as well contributed with its surface potential info and the chemical characterization of the systems. Overall, we obtained the structuring of spheres with potential for biological applications, according to its morphology, size, and superficial charge.


Chitosan Pectin Microspheres Water-in-oil emulsion Crosslinking 



This work was financially supported by the Costa Rica Institute of Technology, through the Research and Extension Vice-presidency (Grant number 1510034).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11696_2019_892_MOESM1_ESM.docx (973 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 973 kb)


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Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Centro de Investigación en BiotecnologíaCartagoCosta Rica
  2. 2.Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Laboratorio Institucional de MicroscopíaCartagoCosta Rica
  3. 3.Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de QuímicaCartagoCosta Rica

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