Advertisement

Filtration of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl from water and recycling of fluorine: a thermochemical equilibrium analysis

  • M. M. SarafrazEmail author
  • M. Arjomandi
Original Paper
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

In the present work, a process concept is proposed and assessed for the separation of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl components referred to as “PFAS” from the activated carbon used in the process of water filtration and further utilization of fluorine as sodium fluoride. PFAS components are highly toxic materials, which have been spread in soil and water over past decades due to the use of fire-fighting foams and via different industrial processes. The current commercially available technology to separate PFAS from water is to use activated carbon to adsorb the chemical compounds, while transferring the pollution from water or soil into activated carbon and combust the activated carbon using an air-blown combustor which transfers the PFAS components to environment in form of chlorofluorocarbon materials. So, the current technology only transfers the pollution from soil or water into atmosphere. However, the proposed process consists of drying process, combustion and chemical reaction, which ultimately converts PFAS into a product with hygienic applications. The drying process removes a large portion of water from the activated carbon proving a better condition for the combustion of remaining carbon. The combustor breaks the long chain of fluorocarbons into smaller molecules of CF4 using oxy-blown combustion. The exhaust gases from the combustor react with sodium in a sodium reactor to produce high-purity NaF compound which has further applications in hygienic industries such as toothpastes, cleaning agents and disinfectants. The proposed method destructs the composition of PFAS into very small molecules without transferring it to the environment.

Keywords

Water pollution PFAS Perfluorocarbon Combustion Sodium Sodium fluoride 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors of this work tend to appreciate the University of Adelaide and Centre for Energy Technology for their financial supports.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abdi-khanghah M, Alrashed AA, Hamoule T, Behbahani RM, Goodarzi M (2018) Toluene methylation to para-xylene. J Therm Anal Calorim 135(3):1723–1732Google Scholar
  2. Adanez J, Abad A, Garcia-Labiano F, Gayan P, Luis F (2012) Progress in chemical-looping combustion and reforming technologies. Prog Energy Combust Sci 38(2):215–282Google Scholar
  3. Arya A, Sarafraz M, Shahmiri S, Madani S, Nikkhah V, Nakhjavani S (2018) Thermal performance analysis of a flat heat pipe working with carbon nanotube-water nanofluid for cooling of a high heat flux heater. Heat Mass Transf 54(4):985–997Google Scholar
  4. Bräunig J, Baduel C, Heffernan A, Rotander A, Donaldson E, Mueller JF (2017) Fate and redistribution of perfluoroalkyl acids through AFFF-impacted groundwater. Sci Total Environ 596:360–368Google Scholar
  5. Fromme H, Tittlemier SA, Völkel W, Wilhelm M, Twardella D (2009) Perfluorinated compounds–exposure assessment for the general population in western countries. Int J Hyg Environ Health 212(3):239–270Google Scholar
  6. Glemser O, Mews R (1972) Sulfur-nitrogen-fluorine compounds. Advances in inorganic chemistry and radiochemistry, vol 4. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 333–390Google Scholar
  7. Hale SE, Arp HPH, Slinde GA, Wade EJ, Bjørseth K, Breedveld GD, Høisæter Å (2017) Sorbent amendment as a remediation strategy to reduce PFAS mobility and leaching in a contaminated sandy soil from a Norwegian firefighting training facility. Chemosphere 171:9–18Google Scholar
  8. Hansen MC, Børresen MH, Schlabach M, Cornelissen G (2010) Sorption of perfluorinated compounds from contaminated water to activated carbon. J Soils Sediments 10(2):179–185Google Scholar
  9. Houtz EF, Higgins CP, Field JA, Sedlak DL (2013) Persistence of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors in AFFF-impacted groundwater and soil. Environ Sci Technol 47(15):8187–8195Google Scholar
  10. Kallenborn R (2004) Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) in the Nordic environment. Nordic Council of Ministers, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  11. Khan FI, Husain T, Hejazi R (2004) An overview and analysis of site remediation technologies. J Environ Manag 71(2):95–122Google Scholar
  12. Klapötke TM (2006) Nitrogen–fluorine compounds. J Fluor Chem 127(6):679–687Google Scholar
  13. Manzer LE (1990) The CFC-ozone issue: progress on the development of alternatives to CFCs. Science 249(4964):31–35Google Scholar
  14. Nakayama S, Harada K, Inoue K, Sasaki K, Seery B, Saito N, Koizumi A (2005) Distributions of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in Japan and their toxicities. Environ Sci Int J Environ Physiol Toxicol 12(6):293–313Google Scholar
  15. Nakhjavani M, Nikkhah V, Sarafraz M, Shoja S, Sarafraz M (2017) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using green tea leaves: experimental study on the morphological, rheological and antibacterial behaviour. Heat Mass Transf 53(10):3201–3209Google Scholar
  16. Nikkhah V, Sarafraz M, Hormozi F (2015) Application of spherical copper oxide (II) water nano-fluid as a potential coolant in a boiling annular heat exchanger. Chem Biochem Eng Q 29(3):405–415Google Scholar
  17. Ochoa-Herrera V, Sierra-Alvarez R (2008) Removal of perfluorinated surfactants by sorption onto granular activated carbon, zeolite and sludge. Chemosphere 72(10):1588–1593Google Scholar
  18. Pourmehran O, Rahimi-Gorji M, Gorji-Bandpy M, Baou M (2015) Comparison between the volumetric flow rate and pressure distribution for different kinds of sliding thrust bearing. Propuls Power Res 4(2):84–90Google Scholar
  19. Pourmehran O, Sarafraz M, Rahimi-Gorji M, Ganji D (2018) Rheological behaviour of various metal-based nano-fluids between rotating discs: a new insight. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 88:37–48Google Scholar
  20. Rahmanian B, Safaei MR, Kazi SN, Ahmadi G, Oztop HF, Vafai K (2014) Investigation of pollutant reduction by simulation of turbulent non-premixed pulverized coal combustion. Appl Therm Eng 73(1):1222–1235Google Scholar
  21. Salari E, Peyghambarzadeh M, Sarafraz MM, Hormozi F (2016) Boiling heat transfer of alumina nano-fluids: role of nanoparticle deposition on the boiling heat transfer coefficient. Period Polytech Chem Eng 60(4):252–258Google Scholar
  22. Salari E, Peyghambarzadeh S, Sarafraz M, Hormozi F, Nikkhah V (2017) Thermal behavior of aqueous iron oxide nano-fluid as a coolant on a flat disc heater under the pool boiling condition. Heat Mass Transf 53(1):265–275Google Scholar
  23. Sarafraz M, Arjomandi M (2018a) Demonstration of plausible application of gallium nano-suspension in microchannel solar thermal receiver: experimental assessment of thermo-hydraulic performance of microchannel. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 94:39–46Google Scholar
  24. Sarafraz M, Arjomandi M (2018b) Thermal performance analysis of a microchannel heat sink cooling with copper oxide-indium (CuO/In) nano-suspensions at high-temperatures. Appl Therm Eng 137:700–709Google Scholar
  25. Sarafraz M, Arjomandi M (2019) Contact angle and heat transfer characteristics of a gravity-driven film flow of a particulate liquid metal on smooth and rough surfaces. Appl Therm Eng 149:602Google Scholar
  26. Sarafraz M, Hormozi F (2014) Application of thermodynamic models to estimating the convective flow boiling heat transfer coefficient of mixtures. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 53:70–85Google Scholar
  27. Sarafraz M, Peyghambarzadeh S (2012a) Influence of thermodynamic models on the prediction of pool boiling heat transfer coefficient of dilute binary mixtures. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 39(8):1303–1310Google Scholar
  28. Sarafraz M, Peyghambarzadeh S (2012b) Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer to Al2O3-water and TiO2-water nanofluids on horizontal smooth tubes with dissimilar homogeneous materials. Chem Biochem Eng Q 26(3):199–206Google Scholar
  29. Sarafraz M, Peyghambarzadeh S, Alavi Fazel S, Vaeli N (2013) Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer of binary nano mixtures under atmospheric pressure around a smooth horizontal cylinder. Period Polytech Chem Eng 57:71Google Scholar
  30. Sarafraz M, Hormozi F, Kamalgharibi M (2014) Sedimentation and convective boiling heat transfer of CuO-water/ethylene glycol nanofluids. Heat Mass Transf 50(9):1237–1249Google Scholar
  31. Sarafraz M, Hormozi F, Peyghambarzadeh S, Vaeli N (2015) Upward flow boiling to DI-water and Cuo nanofluids inside the concentric annuli. J Appl Fluid Mech 8(4):651Google Scholar
  32. Sarafraz M, Hormozi F, Silakhori M, Peyghambarzadeh S (2016) On the fouling formation of functionalized and non-functionalized carbon nanotube nano-fluids under pool boiling condition. Appl Therm Eng 95:433–444Google Scholar
  33. Sarafraz M, Jafarian M, Arjomandi M, Nathan G (2017a) Potential use of liquid metal oxides for chemical looping gasification: a thermodynamic assessment. Appl Energy 195:702–712Google Scholar
  34. Sarafraz M, Jafarian M, Arjomandi M, Nathan GJ (2017b) The relative performance of alternative oxygen carriers for liquid chemical looping combustion and gasification. Int J Hydrogen Energy 42(26):16396–16407Google Scholar
  35. Sarafraz M, Nikkhah V, Madani S, Jafarian M, Hormozi F (2017c) Low-frequency vibration for fouling mitigation and intensification of thermal performance of a plate heat exchanger working with CuO/water nanofluid. Appl Therm Eng 121:388–399Google Scholar
  36. Sarafraz M, Arya H, Arjomandi M (2018a) Thermal and hydraulic analysis of a rectangular microchannel with gallium-copper oxide nano-suspension. J Mol Liq 263:382–389Google Scholar
  37. Sarafraz M, Nikkhah V, Nakhjavani M, Arya A (2018b) Thermal performance of a heat sink microchannel working with biologically produced silver-water nanofluid: experimental assessment. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 91:509–519Google Scholar
  38. Sarafraz M, Pourmehran O, Nikkhah V, Arya A (2018c) Pool boiling heat transfer to zinc oxide-ethylene glycol nano-suspension near the critical heat flux. J Mech Sci Technol 32(5):2309–2315Google Scholar
  39. Sarafraz M, Hart J, Shrestha E, Arya H, Arjomandi M (2019a) Experimental thermal energy assessment of a liquid metal eutectic in a microchannel heat exchanger equipped with a (10 Hz/50 Hz) resonator. Appl Therm Eng 148:578–590Google Scholar
  40. Sarafraz M, Jafarian M, Arjomandi M, Nathan G (2019b) Experimental investigation of the reduction of liquid bismuth oxide with graphite. Fuel Process Technol 188:110–117Google Scholar
  41. Sarafraz M, Pourmehran O, Yang B, Arjomandi M (2019c) Assessment of the thermal performance of a thermosyphon heat pipe using zirconia-acetone nanofluids. Renew Energy 136:884Google Scholar
  42. Tabassum R, Mehmood R, Pourmehran O, Akbar N, Gorji-Bandpy M (2018) Impact of viscosity variation on oblique flow of Cu–H2O nanofluid. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part E J Process Mech Eng 232(5):622–631Google Scholar
  43. Vecitis CD, Park H, Cheng J, Mader BT, Hoffmann MR (2009) Treatment technologies for aqueous perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Front Environ Sci Eng China 3(2):129–151Google Scholar
  44. Völkel W, Genzel-Boroviczény O, Demmelmair H, Gebauer C, Koletzko B, Twardella D, Fromme H (2008) Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in human breast milk: results of a pilot study. Int J Hyg Environ Health 211(3–4):440–446Google Scholar
  45. Yamada T, Taylor PH, Buck RC, Kaiser MA, Giraud RJ (2005) Thermal degradation of fluorotelomer treated articles and related materials. Chemosphere 61(7):974–984Google Scholar
  46. Yeung LW, Guruge KS, Taniyasu S, Yamashita N, Angus PW, Herath CB (2013) Profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances in the liver and serum of patients with liver cancer and cirrhosis in Australia. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 96:139–146Google Scholar
  47. Yingling V (2011) Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in Minnesota-EH. Minnesota Department of Health, Saint PaulGoogle Scholar
  48. Yousefi M, Pourmehran O, Gorji-Bandpy M, Inthavong K, Yeo L, Tu J (2017) CFD simulation of aerosol delivery to a human lung via surface acoustic wave nebulization. Biomech Model Mechanobiol 16(6):2035–2050Google Scholar
  49. Yu Q, Zhang R, Deng S, Huang J, Yu G (2009) Sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate on activated carbons and resin: kinetic and isotherm study. Water Res 43(4):1150–1158Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations