Chemical Papers

, Volume 72, Issue 12, pp 3129–3139 | Cite as

Optimization of process parameters using response surface methodology for Pd(II) extraction with quaternary ammonium salt from chloride medium: kinetic and thermodynamics study

  • Vanee Mohdee
  • Kreangkrai Maneeintr
  • Thanaporn Wannachod
  • Suphot Phatanasri
  • Ura Pancharoen
Original Paper


In this study, liquid–liquid extraction with Aliquat 336 in the presence of cyclohexane as a mobile carrier was investigated to purify Pd(II) from industrial wastewater. Kinetic and thermodynamics analysis showed that Pd(II) extraction was of first-order reaction: the reaction was endothermic reaction which was governed by the diffusion region. The influence of temperature on isotherm model was also investigated. With an increase in reaction temperature, all three isotherms Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm become inaccurate. Results show that the Langmuir isotherm model was preferred for the study of the Pd(II) ion experimental isotherm. Response surface methodology was employed to study the five independent variables which have an effect on the percentage of extraction of palladium(II) ions as a dependent variable. Optimum extraction conditions for the five independent variables were as follows: Aliquat 336 concentration (0.6 M), pH of feed solution (2.0), stirring speed (600 rpm), reaction time (10 min.) and reaction temperature (318 K).

Graphical Abstract


Optimization CCD RSM Pd(II) purification LLE Isotherm model 



The authors profoundly appreciate the support from the Thailand Research Fund and Chulalongkorn University under the Research and Researchers for Industries (RRi) Ph.D. Program (Grant No. PHD58I0081). Thanks are also given to the Separation Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, for chemical and apparatus support as well as to the Mektec Manufacturing Corporation (Thailand) Ltd, for feed solution.


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Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Carbon Capture, Storage and Utilization Research Group, Department of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand

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