Triphenylamine 3,6-carbazole derivative as hole-transporting material for mixed cation perovskite solar cells
- 231 Downloads
A new hole transporting material based on 3,6-disubstituted carbazole (3,6Cz-TPA) was synthesized through a one-step approach and was used as hole-transporting material in perovskite solar cells. The HTM exhibits molecular glass behavior and a high glass transition temperature of 146 °C. A hole-mobility of 7.0 × 10−6 cm2 V−1 s−1 has been measured which is slightly lower than the mobility of spiro-OMeTAD (2.5 × 10−5 cm2 V−1 s−1). The HOMO energy level, similar to the HOMO of spiro-OMeTAD, is suitable to allow the hole injection from the perovskite. Solar cells based on organic–inorganic hybrid cation perovskite light absorber have been built. The optimization of the concentration of the HTM shows an optimal concentration around 30 mM. Finally, the perovskite cells based on 3,6Cz-TPA as HTM lead to a power conversion efficiency around 16%, similar to the most commonly used spiro-OMeTAD (17%).
KeywordsCarbazole Triphenylamine Hole transporting material Perovskite solar cells Mixed cation
This work was supported by the French ministry of Higher Education and Research. This work was also supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grants funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) of Korea under contracts no. NRF-2012M3A6A7054861 (Global Frontier R&D Program on Center for Multiscale Energy System). The mobility measurements has been performed with the use of the Hybriden facility at CEA-Grenoble. The LANEF framework (ANR-10-LABX-51-01) is acknowledged for its support with mutualized infrastructure. Dr. B. Schmaltz acknowledges Prof. Dr. K. Müllen, Dr. H-J Räder and S. Türk from Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (Mainz, Germany) for mass spectroscopy measurements.
- Arora N, Orlandi S, Dar MI, Aghazada S, Jacopin G, Cavazzini M, Mosconi E, Gratia P, De Angelis F, Pozzi G, Graetzel M, Nazeeruddin MK (2016) High open-circuit voltage: fabrication of formamidinium lead bromide perovskite solar cells using fluorene–dithiophene derivatives as hole-transporting materials. ACS Energy Lett 1:107–112. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00077 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Conings B, Drijkoningen J, Gauquelin N, Babayigit A, D’Haen J, D’Olieslaeger L, Ethirajan A, Verbeeck J, Manca J, Mosconi E, De Angelis F, Boyen H-G (2015) Intrinsic thermal instability of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskite. Adv Energy Mater 5:1500477. https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201500477 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gratia P, Magomedov A, Malinauskas T, Daskeviciene M, Abate A, Ahmad S, Grätzel M, Getautis V, Nazeeruddin MK (2015) A methoxydiphenylamine-substituted carbazole twin derivative: an efficient hole-transporting material for perovskite solar cells. Angew Chemie Int Ed 54:11409–11413. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.201504666 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kim HS, Lee CR, Im JH, Lee KB, Moehl T, Marchioro A, Moon SJ, Humphry-Baker R, Yum JH, Moser JE, Grätzel M, Park NG (2012) Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%. Sci Rep 2:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep00591 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Malinauskas T, Tomkute-Luksiene D, Sens R, Daskeviciene M, Send R, Wonneberger H, Jankauskas V, Bruder I, Getautis V (2015) Enhancing thermal stability and lifetime of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells via molecular engineering of the hole-transporting material spiro-OMeTAD. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:11107–11116. https://doi.org/10.1021/am5090385 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xu B, Sheibani E, Liu P, Zhang J, Tian H, Vlachopoulos N, Boschloo G, Kloo L, Hagfeldt A, Sun L (2014) Carbazole-based hole-transport materials for efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells and perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater 26:6629–6634. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201402415 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yi C, Luo J, Meloni S, Boziki A, Ashari-Astani N, Grätzel C, Zakeeruddin SM, Röthlisberger U, Grätzel M (2016) Entropic stabilization of mixed A-cation ABX3 metal halide perovskites for high performance perovskite solar cells. Energy Environ Sci 9:656–662. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5EE03255E CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang M-D, Zheng B-H, Zhuang Q-F, Huang C-Y, Cao H, Chen M-D, Wang B (2017) Two dimethoxyphenylamine-substituted carbazole derivatives as hole-transporting materials for efficient inorganic–organic hybrid perovskite solar cells. Dyes Pigments 146:589–595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2017.07.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar