Influence of curing agent on dielectric properties of crosslinked poly(vinylalcohol-co-vinylcyanoethoxy)

Original Paper
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

Organic electronic devices require dielectric layers made from materials with high dielectric constant (ε′) and good dielectric strength, which allow reducing the threshold voltage and decreasing the power consumption of electronic circuitry. Poly(vinylalcohol-co-vinylcyanoethoxy) (CEPVA) has high ε′ (≈ 15) and low conductivity (σ′), which are exactly the characteristics needed for dielectrics. Its Tg close to room temperature limits, however, its applicability in electronics and improvements of its stability and mechanical properties are necessary. Here, we report on curing of this polymer, exploiting the residual hydroxyl groups present in the polymers after reaction of the parent poly(vinylalcohol) with acrylonitrile. Different curing agents were tested and showed a strong influence on the relaxation phenomena of the crosslinked polymer. The reduced mobility of backbone and side groups of the polymer decreased ε′ but improved the mechanical stability at high temperature and decreased σ′, especially at low frequencies, where ionic conductivity and interface polarization usually occur. At the same time, the hydrophilicity of the polymer was reduced.

Keywords

Dielectric properties Thermal stability Curing agents Polymer layers Flexible electronics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MEYS) of the Czech Republic (Project POLYMAT no. LO1507).

References

  1. Arranz F, Sanchezchaves M, Gallego MM (1994) Synthesis of poly(vinyl alcohol) derivatives containing amidoxime groups. Angew Makromol Chem 218:183–196.  https://doi.org/10.1002/apmc.1994.052180114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Badia JD, Monreal L, de Juano-Arbona VS, Ribes-Greus A (2014) Dielectric spectroscopy of recycled polylactide. Polym Degrad Stab 107:21–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2014.04.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. da Conceicao TF, Felisberti MI (2014) The influence of rigid and flexible monomers on the physical-chemical properties of polyimides. J Appl Polym Sci 131:40351.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.40351 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fulcher GS (1925) Analysis of recent measurements of the viscosity of glasses. J Am Ceram Soc 8:339.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1151-2916.1925.tb16731.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gomez I et al (2015) Thermal degradation study of PVA derivative with pendant phenylthionecarbamate groups by DSC/TGA and GC/MS. Polym Degrad Stab 112:132–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2014.12.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Holland BJ, Hay JN (2001) The thermal degradation of poly(vinyl alcohol). Polymer 42:6775–6783.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0032-3861(01)00166-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hong KH (2016) Preparation and properties of polyvinyl alcohol/tannic acid composite film for topical treatment application. Fibers Polym 17:1963–1968.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12221-016-6886-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hsiue GH, Kuo WJ, Lin CH, Jeng RJ (2000) Preparation and characterization of all organic NLO sol–gel materials based on amino azobenzene dyes. Macromol Chem Phys 201:2336–2347. https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3935(20001101)201:17<2336::aid-macp2336>3.0.co;2-0Google Scholar
  9. Kim SH, Yang SY, Shin K, Jeon H, Lee JW, Hong KP, Park CE (2006) Low-operating-voltage pentacene field-effect transistor with a high-dielectric-constant polymeric gate dielectric. Appl Phys Lett 89:183516.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2374864 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kim SH, Yun WM, Kwon O-K, Hong K, Yang C, Choi W-S, Park CE (2010) Hysteresis behaviour of low-voltage organic field-effect transistors employing high dielectric constant polymer gate dielectrics. J Phys D Appl Phys 43:465102.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/43/46/465102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kobayashi S, Taguchi Y, Uyama H (1990) Synthesis and relative permittivity of poly (2-cyanoethyl vinyl ether)-co-(2-cyanoethyl acrylate). Macromol Chem Rapid Commun 11:267–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lim MH, Jung WS, Park JH (2013) Curing temperature- and concentration-dependent dielectric properties of cross-linked poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP). Curr Appl Phys 13:1554–1557.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cap.2013.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mallakpour S, Rafiee Z (2007) Preparation and characterization of new photoactive polyamides containing 4-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)urazole units. J Appl Polym Sci 103:947–954.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.25258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mallya AN, Kumar GSY, Ranjan R, Ramamurthy PC (2012) Dielectric relaxations above room temperature in DMPU derived polyaniline film. Phys B Condens Matt 407:3828–3832.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physb.2012.05.069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Niu XF, Stoyanov H, Hu W, Leo R, Brochu P, Pei QB (2013) Synthesizing a new dielectric elastomer exhibiting large actuation strain and suppressed electromechanical instability without prestretching. J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 51:197–206.  https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.23197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Peng Z, Kong LX (2007) A thermal degradation mechanism of polyvinyl alcohol/silica nanocomposites. Polym Degrad Stab 92:1061–1071.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2007.02.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Piana F, Kredatusova J, Paruzel B, Pfleger J (2017a) Polymer blends of poly(2-cyanoethyl vinyl ether) and poly(methyl methacrylate) with improved dielectric properties for flexible electronics. Express Polym Lett 11:731–737.  https://doi.org/10.3144/expresspolymlett.2017.70 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Piana F, Pfleger J, Jambor R, Ricica T, Macak JM (2017b) High-k dielectric composites of poly(2-cyanoethyl vinyl ether) and barium titanate for flexible electronics. J Appl Polym Sci 134:45236.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.45236 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Schönhals A, Fritz A, Pfeiffer K (2001) Characterization of the crosslinking kinetics of a thin polymeric layer by real-time dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. Macromol Chem Phys 202:3228–3233. https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3935(20011101)202:16<3228:AID-MACP3228>3.0.CO;2-QGoogle Scholar
  20. Sychov M et al (2015) Core-shell approach to control acid-base properties of surface of dielectric and permittivity of its composite. Chem Lett 44:197–199.  https://doi.org/10.1246/cl.140926 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tammann G, Hesse WZ (1926) Die Abhängigkeit der Viscosität von der Temperatur bei unterkühlten Flüssigkeiten. Zeitschrift Für Anorganische Und Allgemeine Chemie.  https://doi.org/10.1002/zaac.19261560121245 Google Scholar
  22. Tsutsumi H, Kitagawa T (2006) High ionic conductive behavior of cyanoethylated polyvinyl alcohol- and polyacrylonitrile-based electrolytes. Solid State Ionics 177:2683–2686.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2006.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Vandeleur RHM (1994) An extended analysis of the dielectric-properties of poly (2-cyanoethyl vinyl ether)-co-(vinyl alcohol). Polymer 35:2691–2700.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-3861(94)90294-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Xu WT, Guo C, Rhee SW (2013) High performance organic field-effect transistors using cyanoethyl pullulan (CEP) high-k polymer cross-linked with trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether (TTE) at low temperatures. J Mater Chem C 1:3955–3960.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c3tc30134f CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Macromolecular ChemistryAcademy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.iPrague 6Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations