Preoperative Endoscopic Findings in Veterans Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: Prevalence and Predictors of Barrett’s Esophagus

  • Katharine A. Ozeki
  • Sally A. Tran
  • Ramsey CheungEmail author
  • Dan Eisenberg
Original Contributions



There is no consensus regarding the need for routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in patients before bariatric surgery. The aim of our study is to determine the frequency and predictors of EGD findings in a Veteran population presenting for bariatric surgery.


This is a single-center retrospective analysis of Veterans who underwent RYGB or LSG, at a Veterans Affairs hospital between January 2008 and December 2017. All patients received a preoperative EGD. Data abstracted included demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and EGD findings. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for common EGD pathologies.


Of the 260 Veterans included in our cohort, majority were male (75.0%), Caucasian (73.5%), and aged 54.0 ± 9.0 years old with a BMI of 44.9 ± 7.0 kg/m2. Most had hypertension (78.9%), previously smoked (63.9%), and recently used a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) (53.1%). One third of Veterans had a completely normal preoperative EGD. Common preoperative EGD findings included gastritis (35.8%), hiatal hernia (25.8%), esophagitis (20.8%), duodenitis (10.4%), Barrett’s esophagus (7.4%), and Helicobacter pylori infection (4.6%). Preoperative predictors for a normal EGD were female gender, absence of hypertension, and no recent PPI use. Preoperative predictors of Barrett’s esophagus included older age, recent PPI use, and recent histamine H2 receptor blocker (H2B) use. Increased age, male gender, and PPI use were associated with a change in surgical and/or medical management.


Preoperative factors can be used to identify patients at risk for gastroesophageal pathology. Our data support preoperative EGD especially in older males with a history of PPI or H2B use.


Obesity Bariatric surgery Preoperative Endoscopy Barrett’s esophagus 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Stanford University and Palo Alto Veterans Association Health Care Systems institutional review board and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineStanford University School of MedicinePalo AltoUSA
  2. 2.Division of Gastroenterology and HepatologyStanford University School of MedicinePalo AltoUSA
  3. 3.Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (111GI)Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care SystemPalo AltoUSA
  4. 4.Surgical ServicesVeterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care SystemPalo AltoUSA
  5. 5.Department of Surgery – General SurgeryStanford School of MedicineStanfordUSA

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