Insights from the Impact of Meal Composition on Glucose Profile Towards Post-bariatric Hypoglycemia Management
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The need to improve post-bariatric hypoglycemia (PBH) diagnosis and clinical management is well recognized. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of meal nutritional composition on interstitial fluid glucose (IFG) profiles and symptom profile after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).
Seventeen subjects previously submitted to RYGB were allocated into two groups of symptomatic (n = 9) or control individuals (n = 8), according to spontaneous report of symptoms suggestive of hypoglycemia. Subjects were provided with a food and symptom diary (FSD) to record dietary intake and symptoms experienced, while using a flash glucose monitoring (FGM) system for 14 days.
Postprandial symptom reports occurred in 70.5% of subjects (88.9% vs 50.0%, p = 0.0790, symptomatic vs control), although symptoms with concurrent IFG < 54 mg/dL and within 54 to 69 mg/dL were only observed in 31.9% and 4.8% of the events in the symptomatic vs control group, respectively (p = 0.0110). Daily glucose profiles, total energy, and macronutrients intake were not significantly different between the groups. However, nutritional composition of meals preceding reported symptoms had lower protein (3.2 g ± 1.0 g vs 7.7 g ± 0.5 g, p = 0.0286) or higher sugar (11.6 g ± 2.4 g vs 4.3 g ± 0.9 g, p = 0.0333) content.
Postprandial symptoms are often in patients after RYGB. Concurrent hypoglycemia only occurs in up to a third of the symptomatic episodes being more frequent in patients that spontaneously reported complaints. Hypoglycemia is more likely to be triggered by meals with a low protein or high sugar content. These findings highlight the putative role of meal composition in eliciting PBH and reinforce the need to refine nutritional intervention.
KeywordsBariatric surgery Gastric bypass Post-bariatric hypoglycemia Interstitial fluid glucose profile Nutritional composition
The UMIB was funded by grants from the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) Portugal (UID/ Multi/00215/2019).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
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