Advertisement

Obesity Surgery

, Volume 28, Issue 9, pp 2941–2948 | Cite as

“Black Esophagus” and Gastric Volvulus Following Slipped Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band

  • Carolyn Moore
  • Leslie Ray Matthews
  • Omar Danner
  • Assad Taha
  • Aviva Bashan-Gilzenrat
  • Jonathan Nguyen
  • Ed Childs
  • Kahdi UdobiEmail author
Review Article
  • 114 Downloads

Abstract

To review the entity “black esophagus” and sequela of a slipped laparoscopic adjustable band. The patient’s history, physical examination, imaging, and endoscopic findings were reviewed. Detailed review of pathophysiology, presentation, diagnosis, management, and natural history was conducted. “Black esophagus,” also known as acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), is a rare condition resulting in black discoloration of the mid to distal esophagus with less than a hundred reported cases. It has not been previously documented in bariatric surgery or following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. The volvulus was reduced at surgery, and the esophageal changes resolved without sequela. “Black esophagus” is an acute, ominous-appearing condition with a spectrum ranging from superficial mucosal disease to transmural involvement with perforation. Fortunately, esophageal resection is rarely required.

Keywords

Black esophagus Acute esophageal necrosis AEN Gastric volvulus Slipped gastric band Gastrointestinal bleeding Upper endoscopy 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval Statement

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

Informed Consent Statement

Does not apply.

References

  1. 1.
    Brennan JL. Case of extensive necrosis of the esophageal mucosa following hypothermia. J Clin Pathol. 1967;20(4):581–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goldenberg SP, Wain SL, Marignani P. Acute necrotizing esophagitis. Gastroenterology. 1990;98:493–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Peroni S, Sommer EA, Hito R, et al. The “O” sign, a simple and helpful tool in the diagnosis of laparoscopic adjustable gastric band slippage. AJR. 2010;195:137–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kruse A. Black oesophagus. Folia Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;2:57–8.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Etienne JP, Roge J, Veyssier P. Oesophageal necrosis of vascular origin. Sem Hop Paris. 1969;45:1599–606.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Postlehwait RW, Musser AW. Changes in the esophagus in 1000 autopsy specimens. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1974;68:953–6.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moreto M, Ojembarrena E, Zaballa M, et al. Idiopathic acute esophageal necrosis: not necessarily a terminal event. Endoscopy. 1993;25:534–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Soussan EB, Savoye G, Hochain P, et al. Acute esophageal necrosis: a 1-year prospective study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002;56:213–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Augusto F, Fernandes V, Cremers MI, et al. Acute necrotizing esopagitis: a large retrospective case series. Endoscopy. 2004;36:411–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lacy BE, Toor A, Bensen SP, et al. Acute esophageal necrosis: report of two cases and a review of the literature. Gastrointest Endosc. 1999;49:49527–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yasuda H, Yamada M, Endo Y, et al. Acute necrotizing esophagitis: role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Gastroenterol. 2006;41:193–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gurvits GE, Shapsis A, Lau S, et al. Acute esophageal necrosis: a rare syndrome. J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gurvits GE. Black esophagus: acute esophageal necrosis syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(26):3219–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grudell AB, Mueller PS, Viggiano TR. Black esophagus: report of six cases and review of the literature, 1963-2003. Dis Esoph. 2006;19:105–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Worrell SG, Oh DS, Greene CL, et al. Acute esophageal necrosis: a case series and long term follow up. Ann Thorac Surg. 2014;98:341–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Padda M, Mandalia A, Sawalha A. Clinical images: black esophagus in antiphosholipid syndrome.???Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zivkovic V, Nikolic S. The unusual appearance of black esophagus in a case of fatal hypothermia: a possible underlying mechanism. Forensic Sci Pathol. 2013;9:613–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kram M, Gorenstein L, Eisen D, et al. Acute esophageal necrosis associated with gastric volvulus. Gastrointest Endosc. 2000;51:610–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cattan P, Cuillerier E, Cellier C, Carnot F, Landi B, Dusoleil A et al. Black esophagus associated with herpes esophagitis. 1999;49:105–7.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kim YH, Choi SY. Black esophagus with concomitant candidiasis developed after diabetic ketoacidosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:5662–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Manno V, Lentini N, Chirico A, et al. Acute esophageal necrosis (black esophagus): a case report. Acta Diabetol. 2017;54:1061–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jeyalingam T, Shimamura Y, Teshima C. Endoscopic resolution of black esophagus with treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;S1542–35659(17):31054–6.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hejna P, Ublova M, Vorisek V. Black esophagus: acute esophageal necrosis in fatal haloperidol intoxication. J Forensic Sci. 2013;58:1367–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Trappe R, Pohl H, Forberger A, et al. Acute esophageal necrosis (black esophagus) in the renal transplant recipient: manifestation of primary cytomegalovirus infection. Transpl Infect Dis. 2007;9:42–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Katsinelos P, Pilpidis I, Dimiropoulos S, et al. Black esophagus induced by severe vomiting in a healthy young man. Surg Endosc. 2002;3:521.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yamauchi J, Mitsufuji S, Tnaniguchi J, et al. Acute esophageal necrosis followed by upper endoscopy and esophageal manometry/ph test. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:1718–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bass BL, Schweitzer EJ, Harmon JW, et al. H+ diffusion interferes with intrinsic reactive regulation of esophageal mucosal blood flow. Surgery. 1984;96:404–13.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Burtally A, Gregoire P. Acute esophageal necrosis and the low-flow state. Can J Gastroenterol. 2007;21:245–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gurvits GE, Cherian K, Shami MN, et al. Black esophagus: new insights and multicenter international experience in 2014. Dig Dis Sci. 2015;0:444–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Groenveld RL, Bijlsma A, Steenvoorde P, et al. Black esophagus treated with surgery: report of a case. World J Gastrointest Surg. 2013;5:199–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Garas G, Wou C, Sawyer J, et al. Acute esophageal necrosis syndrome. BMJ Case Rep. 2011;2011:bcr1020103423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Eid I, Birch DW, Sharma AM, et al. Complications associated with adjustable gastric banding for morbid obesity: a surgeons guide. Can J Surg. 2011;54:61–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kim EY, Kim YJ. Life-threatening late complication after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: two cases of gastric necrosisGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryMorehouse School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations