Obesity Surgery

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 862–863 | Cite as

Randomized Controlled Trials or Observational Studies? It Depends on the Research Question

  • John B. Dixon
Brief Communication


Research design Randomized trials Observational studies Bariatric-metabolic surgery 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Dixon reports grants from NHMRC, during the conduct of the study, personal fees from Bariatric Advantage, personal fees from Nestle Health Science, personal fees from I-Nova, personal fees from Medtronic, personal fees from Apollo Endosurgery, and personal fees from Novo Nordisk, outside the submitted work;

Ethical Statement

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

An informed consent statement does not apply to this manuscript.


  1. 1.
    Wang GF, Yan YX, Xu N, et al. Predictive factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus remission following bariatric surgery: a meta-analysis. Obes Surg. 2015;25(2):199–208. Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rubino F, Nathan DM, Eckel RH, et al. Metabolic surgery in the treatment algorithm for type 2 diabetes: a joint statement by international diabetes organizations. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(6):861–77. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wu GZ, Cai B, Yu F, et al. Meta-analysis of bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Oncotarget. 2016;7(52):87511–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Baker Heart and Diabetes InstituteMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Iverson Health Innovation Research InstituteSwinburne UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Primary Care Research UnitMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

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