Obesity Surgery

, Volume 27, Issue 10, pp 2716–2723 | Cite as

Obesity Treatment with Botulinum Toxin-A Is Not Effective: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • Fabio Bustamante
  • Vitor Ottoboni BrunaldiEmail author
  • Wanderley Marques Bernardo
  • Diogo Turiani H. de Moura
  • Eduardo Turiani H. de Moura
  • Manoel Galvão
  • Marco Aurélio Santo
  • Eduardo Guimarães H. de Moura
Review Article


The effectiveness of gastric injections of botulinum toxin-A (BTA) as primary treatment for obesity is not well known since results in literature are discrepant. Hence, we aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze the available data to assess the real effect of BTA therapy. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, SCOPUS, EBSCO, LILACS, and BVS. We considered eligible only randomized controlled trials enrolling obese patients comparing BTA versus saline injections. Our initial search identified 8811 records. Six studies fulfilled eligibility criteria. After critical appraisal, two articles were excluded and we meta-analyzed the remainder. The mean difference for absolute weight loss and BMI reduction were 0.12 [CI 95%, − 1.14, 1.38] and − 0.06 [95% CI, − 0.92, 0.81], respectively. Therefore, we concluded that treatment of obesity with BTA is not effective.


Obesity Botulinum toxins Endoscopy Gastric emptying Systematic review Meta-analysis 


Compliance with Ethical Standards



Conflict of Interest

Dr. GALVAO NETO reports personal fees from APOLLO ENDOSURGERY, personal fees from FRACTYL LABS, personal fees from GI WINDOWS, personal fees from GI DYNAMICS, personal fees from ETHICOM ENDOSURGERY, personal fees from ALACER BIOMEDICA outside the submitted work. All the other authors have nothing to declare.

Ethical Approval Statement

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent Statement

Does not apply.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabio Bustamante
    • 1
  • Vitor Ottoboni Brunaldi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wanderley Marques Bernardo
    • 1
  • Diogo Turiani H. de Moura
    • 1
  • Eduardo Turiani H. de Moura
    • 1
  • Manoel Galvão
    • 2
  • Marco Aurélio Santo
    • 3
  • Eduardo Guimarães H. de Moura
    • 1
  1. 1.Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit, Hospital das ClinicasUniversity of São Paulo Medical SchoolSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Unit of Endoscopy - Gastro Obeso CenterSao PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery Unit, Hospital das ClinicasUniversity of Sao Paulo Medical SchoolSão PauloBrazil

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