Endoscopic Sleeve Gastroplasty for Obesity: a Multicenter Study of 248 Patients with 24 Months Follow-Up
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Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is a technique for managing mild to moderately obese patients. We aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes, reproducibility, and predictors of weight response in a large multicenter cohort.
Patients who underwent ESG between January 2013 and December 2015 in three centers were retrospectively analyzed. All procedures were performed using the Apollo OverStitch device (Apollo Endosurgery, Austin, TX). We performed per protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses, where patients lost to follow-up were considered failures. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed.
We included 248 patients (mean age 44.5 ± 10 years, 73% female). Baseline BMI was 37.8 ± 5.6 kg/m2. At 6 and 24 months, 33 and 35 patients were lost to follow-up, respectively. At 6 and 24 months, %TBWL was 15.2 [95%CI 14.2–16.3] and 18.6 [15.7–21.5], respectively. Weight loss was similar between centers at both follow-up intervals. At 24 months, % of patients achieving ≥10% TBWL was 84.2 and 53% with PP and ITT analyses, respectively. On multivariable linear regression analysis, only %TBWL at 6 months strongly predicted %TBWL at 24 months (adjusted for age, gender, and baseline BMI, β = 1.21, p < 0.001). The odds of achieving ≥10%TBWL at 24 months if a patient achieved <10%TBWL at 6 months is 0.18 [0.034–0.84]. Five (2%) serious adverse events occurred.
ESG effectively induces weight loss up to 24 months in moderately obese patients. Failure to achieve adequate weight loss can be predicted early, and patients should be offered adjunctive therapies to augment it.
KeywordsGastric restriction Stomach Weight loss procedure Endoscopic
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Authors 1, 2, 5, and 16 are consultants for Apollo Endosurgery (Austin, TX).
Author 15 is the chief medical officer for Apollo Endosurgery (Austin, TX).
All other authors have nothing to disclose.
Statement of Informed Consent
Informed consent was obtained from all individuals undergoing all procedures and included in our study. No identifying information is included in our study.
Statement of Ethical Rights and Human Rights (as No Animal Experiments Were Conducted in this Study)
All procedures performed in our study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments.
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