Obesity Surgery

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 295–302 | Cite as

Alterations of Gut Microbiota After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy in Sprague-Dawley Rats

  • Yikai Shao
  • Rui Ding
  • Bo Xu
  • Rong Hua
  • Qiwei Shen
  • Kai He
  • Qiyuan YaoEmail author
Original Contributions



The objective of the study was to compare gut microbiota post Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG).


Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to RYGB, SG, or sham surgery. Body weight was measured. Fecal samples were collected before and 1, 3, 6, and 9 weeks postoperatively. Fecal microbiota was profiled by 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing and analyzed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) to determine the α and β diversities of gut microbiota.


The body weight of the RYGB and SG group was significantly lower than that of the sham group. Unweighted UniFrac-based principal coordinate analysis of 5,323,091 sequences from 85 fecal samples from 17 rats revealed a distinct cluster of gut microbiota post RYGB from SG and sham surgery. The percentage of Proteobacteria in the SG and sham group remained markedly lower than that of the RYGB group from 3 weeks postoperatively, while the proportion of Gammaproteobacteria in the RYGB group was significantly higher than that of the SG group and the sham group from 3 weeks postoperatively. Furthermore, the RYGB group was postoperatively enriched for Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidaceae, whereas the SG group was postoperatively enriched for Desulfovibrionaceae and Cyanobacteria. Compared to the pre-operative parameters, the RYGB group had a persistent increase in the relative abundance of Gammaproteobacteria and a decrease in the Shannon index, while the SG group only transiently exhibited these changes within the first week after surgery. The relative abundance of Gammaproteobacteria was negatively correlated, whereas the Shannon index was positively correlated with weight after surgery.


RYGB, but not SG, alters the gut microbiota of Sprague-Dawley rats. RYGB also reduces the diversity of gut microbiota. Furthermore, the abundance of Gammaproteobacteria negatively correlates with postoperative body weight and may be one of the potential contributors to stable weight loss after bariatric surgery.


Bariatric surgery Gut microbiota Roux-en-Y gastric bypass Sleeve gastrectomy 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

The study protocol was approved by the local institutional review board at the authors’ affiliated institution, and animal study was carried out in accordance with the established institutional and state guideline regarding use of experimental animals.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All applicable institutional and/or national guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This study was performed according to the recommendations of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Ministry of Health, China.

Supplementary material

11695_2016_2297_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (94 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 1 Surgical procedure for sleeve gastrectomy. After dissection of the gastro-hepatic and gastro-splenic ligaments and ligation of the vessels of the greater curvature, the stomach is closed using a vascular clamp from 3 to 5 mm proximal to the pylorus to the lower cardiac incisures. The entire fundus and body of the greater curvature are then incised along the outside of the vascular clamps. The gastric remnant is closed using continuous 6-0 Maxon sutures. GF: the fundus; GC: the body; G: the stomach; E: the esophagus; D: the duodenum. (JPEG 94 kb)
11695_2016_2297_Fig5_ESM.gif (26 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 2

PC1 of Unweighted UniFrac analysis in SG, RYGB and sham groups. Values are expressed as mean ± SEM. PC1: first principal coordinate, percent variation explained 17.69%, based on Unweighted UniFrac analysis. (GIF 26 kb)

11695_2016_2297_MOESM2_ESM.tif (2.2 mb)
High Resolution Image (TIFF 2245 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yikai Shao
    • 1
  • Rui Ding
    • 1
  • Bo Xu
    • 1
  • Rong Hua
    • 1
  • Qiwei Shen
    • 1
  • Kai He
    • 1
  • Qiyuan Yao
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Center for Obesity and Metabolic SurgeryHuashan Hospital of Fudan UniversityShanghaiChina

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