Obesity Surgery

, Volume 26, Issue 12, pp 2817–2823 | Cite as

Impact of Sleeve Gastrectomy on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Gastric Emptying Time, Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1), Ghrelin and Leptin in Non-morbidly Obese Subjects with BMI 30–35.0 kg/m2: a Prospective Study

  • B. Vigneshwaran
  • Akshat Wahal
  • Sandeep Aggarwal
  • Pratyusha Priyadarshini
  • Hemanga Bhattacharjee
  • Rajesh Khadgawat
  • Rajkumar Yadav
Original Contributions



The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with a body mass index (BMI) of 30.0–35.0 kg/m2. Possible mechanisms, including alterations in gastric emptying time (GET), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), ghrelin and leptin, were evaluated.


Twenty obese patients with T2DM and with a BMI of 30.0–35.0 kg/m2 underwent LSG during March 2012 to February 2015. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and GET were measured at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months after surgery. Fasting and post-prandial levels of serum GLP-1, ghrelin and leptin were measured pre-operatively and after 3 and 6 months.


The average duration of follow-up was 17.6 months, and 10 patients had completed 2 years of follow-up. After 2 years, the average BMI decreased from 33.4 ± 1.2 to 26.7 ± 1.8 kg/m2. The mean HbA1c decreased from 8.7 ± 1.6 to 6.7 ± 1.5 %, respectively. Ten patients achieved complete remission. Insulin could be stopped in all six patients who were on it pre-operatively. Meal-stimulated GLP-1 response and serum insulin at 30 min showed a significant increase following surgery. There was a significant decrease in GET.


This prospective study confirms the positive impact of LSG on diabetic status of non-morbidly obese patients. The possible mechanisms include the rise in post-prandial GLP-1 level induced by accelerated gastric emptying, leading to an increase in insulin secretion. LSG also leads to decreased ghrelin and leptin levels which may have a role in improving glucose homeostasis after surgery.


Sleeve gastrectomy Diabetes mellitus Class 1 obesity Mechanisms Gastric emptying time Glucagon-like peptide 1 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

The study was approved and carried out in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional ethics committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Vigneshwaran
    • 1
  • Akshat Wahal
    • 1
  • Sandeep Aggarwal
    • 1
  • Pratyusha Priyadarshini
    • 1
  • Hemanga Bhattacharjee
    • 1
  • Rajesh Khadgawat
    • 2
  • Rajkumar Yadav
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Surgical DisciplinesAll India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS)New DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of EndocrinologyAll India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS)New DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyAll India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS)New DelhiIndia

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