Obesity Surgery

, Volume 26, Issue 12, pp 3001–3006 | Cite as

Changes on Adipose Tissue Distribution After Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Obese Göttingen Minipig. Effects on Glucose Metabolism

  • Laura Hernández Hurtado
  • Francisco M. Sánchez-Margallo
  • José Luis De la Cruz Vigo
  • Juan Maestre Antequera
  • Ana M. Matos Azevedo
  • Javier G. Casado
  • Idoia Díaz-Güemes Martín-Portugués
Original Contributions



The objective of the study was to assess Roux-en-Y independent-to-weight metabolic effects on an obese Gottingen minipig.


Eleven castrated Göttingen minipigs were enrolled. Minipigs became obese after a 9-month period of experimental diet. The animals were then subjected to a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (period P1) followed by 4 months of follow-up (period P2). During this last period, they were fed to maintain similar body weight to that observed at the day of surgery. Registered parameters during each period included biometric variables; abdominal adipose tissue (AT) distribution; lipid profile; HOMA-IR; and fasting plasma leptin, adiponectin, glucose, insulin and fructosamine.


Two pigs were unable to complete the study due to postoperative complications. Four months after surgery, the body weight (kg) was maintained (P1 51.90 ± 5.78 vs P2 51.47 ± 5.68). On the contrary, intraperitoneal AT (p < 0.0001), glucose (mmol/L) (P1: 5.53 ± 0.37 vs 4.66 ± 0.72, p = 0.019), fructosamine (μmol/L) (p = 0.0001) and insulin (pmol/L) (P1: 36.66 ± 13.94 vs P2: 21.42 ± 12.62, p = 0.001) significantly decreased after surgery. Lipid profile showed a significant increase after high-fat feeding period and a slight reduction at P2, which continued increasing. At the end of the study, leptin plasma levels (ng/mL) showed a significant reduction compared to basal value (p = 0.001).


The improvement in glucose metabolism seems to occur by means of the redistribution of body fat. In order to fully confirm this hypothesis, more studies including the evaluation of incretins and inflammatory molecules, as well as a glycaemia control study against glucose load, are needed.


Göttingen minipig Leptin Adiponectin Adipose tissue distribution 


  1. 1.
    Webber L, Divajeva D, Marsh T, et al. The future burden of obesity-related diseases in the 53 WHO European-region countries and the impact of effective interventions: a modelling study. BMJ Open. 2014;4(7):e004787.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cinti S. The adipose organ at a glance. Dis Model Mech. 2012;5(5):588–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mingrone G, Panunzi S, De Gaetano A, et al. Bariatric surgery versus conventional medical therapy for type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(17):1577–85.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Olsen AK, Bladbjerg EM, Marckmann P, et al. The Gottingen minipig as a model for postprandial hyperlipidaemia in man: experimental observations. Lab Anim. 2002;36(4):438–44.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Larsen MO, Juhl CB, Porksen N, et al. Beta-cell function and islet morphology in normal, obese, and obese beta-cell mass-reduced Gottingen minipigs. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005;288(2):E412–21.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Larsen MO, Rolin B, Wilken M, et al. High-fat high-energy feeding impairs fasting glucose and increases fasting insulin levels in the Gottingen minipig: results from a pilot study. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;967:414–23.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Val-Laillet D, Blat S, Louveau I, et al. A computed tomography scan application to evaluate adiposity in a minipig model of human obesity. Br J Nutr. 2010;104(11):1719–28.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, et al. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia. 1985;28(7):412–9.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shen W, Wang Z, Punyanita M, et al. Adipose tissue quantification by imaging methods: a proposed classification. Obes Res. 2003;11(1):5–16.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ramos AP, de Abreu MR, Vendramini RC, et al. Decrease in circulating glucose, insulin and leptin levels and improvement in insulin resistance at 1 and 3 months after gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2006;16(10):1359–64.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weyer C, Funahashi T, Tanaka S, et al. Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity and type 2 diabetes: close association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(5):1930–5.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wing RR, Blair EH, Bononi P, et al. Caloric restriction per se is a significant factor in improvements in glycemic control and insulin sensitivity during weight loss in obese NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care. 1994;17(1):30–6.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Randle PJ. Regulatory interactions between lipids and carbohydrates: the glucose fatty acid cycle after 35 years. Diabetes Metab Rev. 1998;14(4):263–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Inoue T, Zakikhani M, David S, et al. Effects of castration on insulin levels and glucose tolerance in the mouse differ from those in man. Prostate. 2010;70(15):1628–35.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Felipo V, Urios A, Garcia-Torres ML, et al. Alterations in adipocytokines and cGMP homeostasis in morbid obesity patients reverse after bariatric surgery. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21(2):229–37.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Park KG, Park KS, Kim MJ, et al. Relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body fat distribution. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004;63(2):135–42.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    de Carvalho CP, Marin DM, de Souza AL, et al. GLP-1 and adiponectin: effect of weight loss after dietary restriction and gastric bypass in morbidly obese patients with normal and abnormal glucose metabolism. Obes Surg. 2009;19(3):313–20.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tsai EC, Boyko EJ, Leonetti DL, et al. Low serum testosterone level as a predictor of increased visceral fat in Japanese-American men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24(4):485–91.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Hernández Hurtado
    • 1
  • Francisco M. Sánchez-Margallo
    • 1
  • José Luis De la Cruz Vigo
    • 2
  • Juan Maestre Antequera
    • 1
  • Ana M. Matos Azevedo
    • 1
  • Javier G. Casado
    • 1
  • Idoia Díaz-Güemes Martín-Portugués
    • 1
  1. 1.Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre Jesús UsónCáceresSpain
  2. 2.Clínica San FranciscoLeónSpain

Personalised recommendations