Changes on Adipose Tissue Distribution After Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Obese Göttingen Minipig. Effects on Glucose Metabolism
The objective of the study was to assess Roux-en-Y independent-to-weight metabolic effects on an obese Gottingen minipig.
Eleven castrated Göttingen minipigs were enrolled. Minipigs became obese after a 9-month period of experimental diet. The animals were then subjected to a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (period P1) followed by 4 months of follow-up (period P2). During this last period, they were fed to maintain similar body weight to that observed at the day of surgery. Registered parameters during each period included biometric variables; abdominal adipose tissue (AT) distribution; lipid profile; HOMA-IR; and fasting plasma leptin, adiponectin, glucose, insulin and fructosamine.
Two pigs were unable to complete the study due to postoperative complications. Four months after surgery, the body weight (kg) was maintained (P1 51.90 ± 5.78 vs P2 51.47 ± 5.68). On the contrary, intraperitoneal AT (p < 0.0001), glucose (mmol/L) (P1: 5.53 ± 0.37 vs 4.66 ± 0.72, p = 0.019), fructosamine (μmol/L) (p = 0.0001) and insulin (pmol/L) (P1: 36.66 ± 13.94 vs P2: 21.42 ± 12.62, p = 0.001) significantly decreased after surgery. Lipid profile showed a significant increase after high-fat feeding period and a slight reduction at P2, which continued increasing. At the end of the study, leptin plasma levels (ng/mL) showed a significant reduction compared to basal value (p = 0.001).
The improvement in glucose metabolism seems to occur by means of the redistribution of body fat. In order to fully confirm this hypothesis, more studies including the evaluation of incretins and inflammatory molecules, as well as a glycaemia control study against glucose load, are needed.