Obesity Surgery

, Volume 26, Issue 11, pp 2661–2666 | Cite as

Patient-Reported Adherence to Empiric Vitamin/Mineral Supplementation and Related Nutrient Deficiencies After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

  • Haleigh JamesEmail author
  • Paul Lorentz
  • Maria L. Collazo-Clavell
Original Contributions



Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is associated with nutrient deficiencies, but the optimal supplement regimen remains unclear. We assessed patient-reported adherence to and efficacy of Mayo Clinic’s post-RYGB vitamin/mineral supplement protocol and the related incidence of common nutrient deficiencies.


Data were collected on 287 obese patients who underwent RYGB. Patient-reported supplement adherence was assessed via medication/supplement lists generated by medication reconciliation in hospital dismissal summaries and clinic notes at 6, 12, and 18–36 months postsurgery. Deficiencies were assessed via measurements of hemoglobin, ferritin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and vitamins A, E, and B12 in the setting of our supplementation protocol.


Patient-reported adherence to multivitamin/minerals and subcutaneous vitamin B12 was sustained in >92 % of patients, correlating with low rates of vitamin A, E, and B12 deficiencies (4.9, 0, and 3.7 %, respectively). Rates of calcium supplementation decreased (94.1 to 78.7 %) while rates of vitamin D and iron use increased over time (39.7 to 65.8 and 6.3 to 23.1 %, respectively). At 18–36 months, vitamin D deficiency persisted in 16.2 % of patients, iron deficiency in 6.7 % of women and 17.2 % of men, and anemia in 12.2 % of women and 34.3 % of men.


Compared to previous reports, we found a lower prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies and excellent patient-reported adherence to a standardized multivitamin/mineral and vitamin B12 regimen. Continued prevalence of vitamin D deficiency prompts consideration of standardized vitamin D supplementation after RYGB. Anemia and iron deficiency were observed at lower rates than previously reported, but were more common in men compared to women.


Roux-en-Y gastric bypass Vitamin/mineral supplement adherence Nutrient deficiencies 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Mayo Clinic.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical Approval

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

Informed Consent

Does not apply.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haleigh James
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paul Lorentz
    • 1
  • Maria L. Collazo-Clavell
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nutrition, and MetabolismMayo ClinicRochesterUSA

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