Incidence of Gallstone Formation and Cholecystectomy 10 Years After Bariatric Surgery
Rapid weight loss is a risk factor for gallstone formation, and postoperative treatment options for gallstone formation are still part of scientific discussion. No prospective studies monitored the incidence for gallstone formation and subsequent cholecystectomy after bariatric surgery longer than 5 years. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of gallstone formation and cholecystectomy in bariatric patients over 10 years.
Materials and methods
One hundred nine patients were observed over 10 years after laparoscopic gastric banding or gastric bypass/gastric sleeve. The incidence of gallstone formation and cholecystectomy was correlated to longitudinal changes in anthropometric parameters.
In total, 91 female and 18 male patients were examined. Nineteen patients had postoperative gallstone formation, and 12 female patients required cholecystectomy. The number needed to harm for gallstone formation was 7.1 and 2.3 cases in the banding group and gastric bypass/gastric sleeve group, respectively. The number needed to harm for cholecystectomy was 11.6 and 2.5 cases in the banding group and the gastric bypass/gastric sleeve group, respectively. Weight loss was higher in patients requiring subsequent cholecystectomy. Mean follow-up to cholecystectomy was 21.5 months with the latest operation after 51 months.
Female gender and rapid weight loss were major risk factors for postoperative cholelithiasis. Ultrasound examinations within 2 to 5 years are recommended in every patient, independent of bariatric procedure. Pharmacologic treatment should be considered in high risk patients within 2 to 5 years to prevent postoperative cholelithiasis. This helps to optimize patient care and lowers postoperative morbidity.
KeywordsGallstone formation Bariatric surgery Cholecystectomy Obesity Weight loss
- 12.Pontiroli AE, Pizzocri P, Giacomelli M, Marchi M, Vedani P, Cucchi E, et al. Ultrasound measurement of visceral and subcutaneous fat in morbidly obese patients before and after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: comparison with computerized tomography and with anthropometric measurements. Obes Surg. 2002;12(5):648–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Mechanick JI, Youdim A, Jones DB, Garvey WT, Hurley DL, McMahon MM, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient–2013 update: cosponsored by American Association Of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society, and American Society For Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21 Suppl 1:S1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Li VK, Pulido N, Fajnwaks P, Szomstein S, Rosenthal R, Martinez-Duartez P. Predictors of gallstone formation after bariatric surgery: a multivariate analysis of risk factors comparing gastric bypass, gastric banding, and sleeve gastrectomy. Surg Endosc. 2009;23(7):1640–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 24.Baron TH, Song LM, Ferreira LE, Smyrk TC. Novel approach to therapeutic ERCP after long-limb Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery using transgastric self-expandable metal stents: experimental outcomes and first human case study (with videos). Gastrointest Endosc. 2012;75(6):1258–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Sugerman HJ, Brewer WH, Shiffman ML, Brolin RE, Fobi MA, Linner JH, et al. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, prospective trial of prophylactic ursodiol for the prevention of gallstone formation following gastric-bypass-induced rapid weight loss. Am J Surg. 1995;169(1):91–6. discussion 6–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar