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Obesity Surgery

, Volume 24, Issue 8, pp 1126–1135 | Cite as

The Evolution of Metabolic/Bariatric Surgery

  • Henry BuchwaldEmail author
Review

Abstract

Metabolic surgery is defined as “the operative manipulation of a normal organ or organ system to achieve a biological result for a potential health gain.” The evolution of metabolic/bariatric surgery can be viewed from several perspectives: (1) realization that bariatric surgery has always been and will always be metabolic surgery; (2) lessons to be learned from the six dominant procedures; (3) overview of the other operations that have been proposed; (4) discussion of mechanisms of action; (5) physiology of energy metabolism; and (6) introduction to the emerging concept of inflammation. This review will end with thoughts on the present and future outcomes from the knowledge we have gained from metabolic/bariatric surgery. The author concludes with the statement: Metabolic surgery is cognitive surgery.

Keywords

Obesity surgery Metabolic surgery Sleeve gastrectomy Vertical banded gastroplasty Gastric band Gastric bypass Gastric vagal blocking Biliopancreatic diversion Duodenal switch 

Notes

Conflict of Interest

None.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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