Advertisement

Obesity Surgery

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 324–333 | Cite as

Controversy Surrounding ‘Mini’ Gastric Bypass

  • Kamal K. Mahawar
  • William R. J. Carr
  • Shlok Balupuri
  • Peter K. Small
Review Article

Abstract

Mini gastric bypass is a modification of Mason loop gastric bypass with a longer lesser curvature-based pouch. Though it has been around for more than 15 years, its uptake by the bariatric community has been relatively slow, and the procedure has been mired in controversy right from its early days. Lately, there seems to be a surge in the interest in this procedure, and there is now published experience with more than 5,000 procedures globally. This review examines the major controversial aspects of this procedure against the available scientific literature. Surgeons performing this procedure need to be aware of these controversies and counsel their patients appropriately.

Keywords

Bariatric surgery Mini gastric bypass Omega loop gastric bypass Obesity Obesity surgery Biliary reflux Cancer 

Abbreviations

MGB

Mini gastric bypass

RYGB

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

PRISMA

Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

LRYGB

Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

LMGB

Laparoscopic mini gastric bypass

GORD

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

Notes

Conflict of interest

None

References

  1. 1.
    Mason EE, Ito C. Gastric bypass in obesity. Surg Clin North Am. 1967;47:1345–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rutledge R. The mini-gastric bypass: experience with the first 1274 cases. Obes Surg. 2001;11(3):276–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fisher BL, Buchwald H, Clark W, et al. Mini-gastric bypass controversy. Obes Surg. 2001;11(6):773–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Olchowski S, Timms MR, O’Brien P, et al. More on mini gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2001;11(4):532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Johnson WH, Fernanadez AZ, Farrell TM, et al. Surgical revision of loop (“mini”) gastric bypass procedure: multicenter review of complications and conversions to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2007;3(1):37–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Collins BJ, Miyashita T, Schweitzer M, et al. Gastric bypass. Why Roux-en-Y? A review of experimental data. Arch Surg. 2007;142(10):1000–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McCarthy HB, Rucker RD, Chan EK, et al. Gastritis after gastric bypass surgery. Surgery. 1985;98:68–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rutledge R, Walsh TR. Continued excellent results with the mini-gastric bypass: six-year study in 2,410 patients. Obes Surg. 2005;15(9):1304–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Noun R, Skaff J, Riachi E, et al. One thousand consecutive mini-gastric bypass: short- and long-term outcome. Obes Surg. 2012;22(5):697–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Peraglie C. Laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass (LMGB) in the super-super obese: outcomes in 16 patients. Obes Surg. 2008;18(9):1126–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chakhtoura G, Zinzindohoué F, Ghanem Y, et al. Primary results of laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass in a French obesity-surgery specialized university hospital. Obes Surg. 2008;18(9):1130–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Piazza L, Ferrara F, Leanza S, et al. A laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass: short-term single-institute experience. Updates Surg. 2011;63(4):239–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carbajo M, García-Caballero M, Toledano M, et al. One-anastomosis gastric bypass by laparoscopy: results of the first 209 patients. Obes Surg. 2005;15(3):398–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    García-Caballero M, Valle M, Martínez-Moreno JM, et al. Resolution of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome in normal weight 24–29 BMI patients with one anastomosis gastric bypass. Nutr Hosp. 2012;27(2):623–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim Z, Hur KY. Laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass for type 2 diabetes: the preliminary report. World J Surg. 2011;35(3):631–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee WJ, Ser KH, Lee YC, et al. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y vs. mini-gastric bypass for the treatment of morbid obesity: a 10-year experience. Obes Surg. 2012;22(12):1827–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sinar DR, Flickinger EG, Park HK, et al. Retrograde endoscopy of the bypassed stomach segment after gastric bypass surgery: unexpected lesions. South Med J. 1985;78(3):255–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Byrne JP, Romagnoli R, Bechi P, et al. Duodenogastric reflux of bile in health: the normal range. Physiol Meas. 1999;20(2):149–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fuchs KH, Maroske J, Fein M, et al. Variability in the composition of physiologic duodenogastric reflux. J Gastrointest Surg. 1999;3(4):389–95. discussion 395–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fiorucci S, Distrutti E, Di Matteo F, et al. Circadian variations in gastric acid and pepsin secretion and intragastric bile acid in patients with reflux esophagitis and in healthy controls. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995;90(2):270–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang Y, Yang X, Gu W, et al. Histological features of the gastric mucosa in children with primary bile reflux gastritis. World J Surg Oncol. 2012;10:27.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Matsuhisa T, Arakawa T, Watanabe T, et al. Relation between bile acid reflux into the stomach and the risk of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia: a multicenter study of 2283 cases. Dig Endosc. 2013;25(5):519–25. doi: 10.1111/den.12030.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lorusso D, Misciagna G, Mangini V, et al. Duodenogastric reflux of bile acids, gastrin and parietal cells, and gastric acid secretion before and 6 months after cholecystectomy. Am J Surg. 1990;159(6):575–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kunsch S, Neesse A, Huth J, et al. Increased duodeno-gastro-esophageal reflux (DGER) in symptomatic GERD patients with a history of cholecystectomy. Z Gastroenterol. 2009;47(8):744–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cabrol J, Navarro X, Simo-Deu J, et al. Evaluation of duodenogastric reflux in gallstone disease before and after simple cholecystectomy. Am J Surg. 1990;160(3):283–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Atak I, Ozdil K, Yücel M, et al. The effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the development of alkaline reflux gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Hepatogastroenterology. 2012;59(113):59–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee Y, Tokunaga A, Tajiri T, et al. Inflammation of the gastric remnant after gastrectomy: mucosal erythema is associated with bile reflux and inflammatory cellular infiltration is associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. J Gastroenterol. 2004;39(6):520–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lorusso D, Linsalata M, Pezzolla F, et al. Duodenogastric reflux and gastric mucosal polyamines in the non-operated stomach and in the gastric remnant after Billroth II gastric resection. A role in gastric carcinogenesis? Anticancer Res. 2000;20(3B):2197–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Parrilla P, Lujan JA, Robles R, et al. Duodenogastric reflux quantification in peptic ulcer surgery: comparison between different surgical techniques. Surgery. 1993;113(1):43–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bechi P, Balzi M, Becciolini A, et al. Gastric cell proliferation kinetics and bile reflux after partial gastrectomy. Am J Gastroenterol. 1991;86(10):1424–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Watson RG, Love AH. Intragastric bile acid concentrations are unrelated to symptoms of flatulent dyspepsia in patients with and without gallbladder disease and postcholecystectomy. Gut. 1987;28(2):131–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Collins BJ, Crothers G, McFarland RJ, et al. Bile acid concentrations in the gastric juice of patients with erosive oesophagitis. Gut. 1985;26(5):495–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bost R, Hostein J, Valenti M, et al. Is there an abnormal fasting duodenogastric reflux in nonulcer dyspepsia? Dig Dis Sci. 1990;35(2):193–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schindlbeck NE, Heinrich C, Stellaard F, et al. Healthy controls have as much bile reflux as gastric ulcer patients. Gut. 1987;28(12):1577–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lee WJ, Yu PJ, Wang W, et al. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y versus mini-gastric bypass for the treatment of morbid obesity: a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Ann Surg. 2005;242(1):20–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sacks BC, Mattar SG, Qureshi FG, et al. Incidence of marginal ulcers and the use of absorbable anastomotic sutures in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2006;2(1):11–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gumbs AA, Duffy AJ, Bell RL. Incidence and management of marginal ulceration after laparoscopic Roux-Y gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2006;2(4):460–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dallal RM, Bailey LA. Ulcer disease after gastric bypass surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2006;2(4):455–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    McVay MA, Friedman KE, Applegate KL, et al. Patient predictors of follow-up care attendance in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2012. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2012.11.005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lara MD, Baker MT, Larson CJ, et al. Travel distance, age, and sex as factors in follow-up visit compliance in the post-gastric bypass population. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2005;1(1):17–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Harper J, Madan AK, Ternovits CA, et al. What happens to patients who do not follow-up after bariatric surgery? Am Surg. 2007;73(2):181–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shen R, Dugay G, Rajaram K, et al. Impact of patient follow-up on weight loss after bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2004;14(4):514–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    McQuaid KR, Laine L, Fennerty MB, et al. Systematic review: the role of bile acids in the pathogenesis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and related neoplasia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011;34(2):146–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nason KS, Farrow DC, Haigh G, et al. Gastric fluid bile concentrations and risk of Barrett’s esophagus. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2007;6(3):304–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Taha AS, Angerson WJ, Morran CG. Reflux and Barrett’s oesophagitis after gastric surgery—long-term follow-up and implications for the roles of gastric acid and bile in oesophagitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003;17(4):547–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Parrilla P, Liron R, Martinez de Haro LF, et al. Gastric surgery does not increase the risk of developing Barrett's esophagus. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92(6):960–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Avidan B, Sonnenberg A, Schnell TG, et al. Gastric surgery is not a risk for Barrett’s esophagus or esophageal adenocarcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2001;121(6):1281–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Akiyama T, Inamori M, Akimoto K, et al. Gastric surgery is not a risk factor for erosive esophagitis or Barrett’s esophagus. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2010;45(4):403–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Champion G, Richter JE, Vaezi MF, et al. Duodenogastroesophageal reflux: relationship to pH and importance in Barrett’s esophagus. Gastroenterology. 1994;107(3):747–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Caygill CP, Hill MJ, Kirkham JS, et al. Mortality from gastric cancer following gastric surgery for peptic ulcer. Lancet. 1986;1(8487):929–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lundegårdh G, Adami HO, Helmick C, et al. Stomach cancer after partial gastrectomy for benign ulcer disease. N Engl J Med. 1988;319(4):195–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fisher SG, Davis F, Nelson R, et al. A cohort study of stomach cancer risk in men after gastric surgery for benign disease. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993;85(16):1303–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tersmette AC, Goodman SN, Offerhaus GJ, et al. Multivariate analysis of the risk of stomach cancer after ulcer surgery in an Amsterdam cohort of postgastrectomy patients. Am J Epidemiol. 1991;134(1):14–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Domellöf L, Janunger KG. The risk for gastric carcinoma after partial gastrectomy. Am J Surg. 1977;134(5):581–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ovaska JT, Havia TV, Kujari HP. Risk of gastric stump carcinoma after gastric resection for benign ulcer disease. Ann Chir Gynaecol. 1986;75(4):192–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Viste A, Bjørnestad E, Opheim P, et al. Risk of carcinoma following gastric operations for benign disease. A historical cohort study of 3470 patients. Lancet. 1986;2(8505):502–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Schafer LW, Larson DE, Melton 3rd LJ, et al. The risk of gastric carcinoma after surgical treatment for benign ulcer disease. A population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. N Engl J Med. 1983;309(20):1210–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fischer AB, Graem N, Jensen OM. Risk of gastric cancer after Billroth II resection for duodenal ulcer. Br J Surg. 1983;70(9):552–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Schnapka G, Hofstaedter F, Schwamberger K, et al. Gastric stump carcinoma following Billroth II resection for peptic ulcer disease. Comparison with cancer in non-operated stomach. Endoscopy. 1984;16(5):171–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pointner R, Schwab G, Königsrainer A, et al. Gastric stump cancer: etiopathological and clinical aspects. Endoscopy. 1989;21(3):115–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tokudome S, Kono S, Ikeda M, et al. A prospective study on primary gastric stump cancer following partial gastrectomy for benign gastroduodenal diseases. Cancer Res. 1984;44(5):2208–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Luukkonen P, Kalima T, Kivilaakso E. Decreased risk of gastric stump carcinoma after partial gastrectomy supplemented with bile diversion. Hepatogastroenterology. 1990;37 Suppl 2:171–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kivilaakso E, Hakkiluoto A, Kalima TV, et al. Relative risk of stump cancer following partial gastrectomy. Br J Surg. 1977;64(5):336–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lagergren J, Lindam A, Mason RM. Gastric stump cancer after distal gastrectomy for benign gastric ulcer in a population-based study. Int J Cancer. 2012;131(6):E1048–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    La Vecchia C, Negri E, D’Avanzo B, et al. Partial gastrectomy and subsequent gastric cancer risk. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1992;46(1):12–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lacaine F, Houry S, Huguier M. Stomach cancer after partial gastrectomy for benign ulcer disease. A critical analysis of epidemiological reports. Hepatogastroenterology. 1992;39(1):4–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hansson LE, Nyrén O, Hsing AW, et al. The risk of stomach cancer in patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer disease. N Engl J Med. 1996;335(4):242–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Seoane A, Bessa X, Alameda F, et al. Role of Helicobacter pylori in stomach cancer after partial gastrectomy for benign ulcer disease. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2005;97(11):778–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Marshall BJ, Warren JR. Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration. Lancet. 1984;1(8390):1311–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Marshall BJ, Warren JR, Francis GJ, et al. Rapid urease test in the management of Campylobacter pyloridis-associated gastritis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1987;82(3):200–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Marshall BJ, Goodwin CS, Warren JR, et al. Prospective double-blind trial of duodenal ulcer relapse after eradication of Campylobacter pylori. Lancet. 1988;2(8626–8627):1437–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tersmette AC, Offerhaus GJ, Tersmette KW, et al. Meta-analysis of the risk of gastric stump cancer: detection of high risk patient subsets for stomach cancer after remote partial gastrectomy for benign conditions. Cancer Res. 1990;50(20):6486–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bahmanyar S, Ye W, Dickman PW, et al. Long-term risk of gastric cancer by subsite in operated and unoperated patients hospitalized for peptic ulcer. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102(6):1185–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Caygill CP, Knowles RL, Hall R. Increased risk of cancer mortality after vagotomy for peptic ulcer: a preliminary analysis. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1991;1(1):35–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lundegårdh G, Adami HO, Helmick C, et al. Risk of cancer following partial gastrectomy for benign ulcer disease. Br J Surg. 1994;81(8):1164–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Leivonen M, Nordling S, Haglund C. Does Helicobacter pylori in the gastric stump increase the cancer risk after certain reconstruction types? Anticancer Res. 1997;17(5B):3893–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nagahata Y, Kawakita N, Azumi Y, et al. Etiological involvement of Helicobacter pylori in “reflux” gastritis after gastrectomy. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996;91(10):2130–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Li XB, Lu H, Chen HM, et al. Role of bile reflux and Helicobacter pylori infection on inflammation of gastric remnant after distal gastrectomy. J Dig Dis. 2008;9(4):208–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Nakagawara H, Miwa K, Nakamura S, et al. Duodenogastric reflux sustains Helicobacter pylori infection in the gastric stump. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2003;38(9):931–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bair MJ, Wu MS, Chang WH, et al. Spontaneous clearance of Helicobacter pylori colonization in patients with partial gastrectomy: correlates with operative procedures and duration after operation. J Formos Med Assoc. 2009;108(1):13–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tomtitchong P, Onda M, Matsukura N, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection in the remnant stomach after gastrectomy: with special reference to the difference between Billroth I and II anastomoses. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1998;27 Suppl 1:S154–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sitarz R, Maciejewski R, Polkowski WP, et al. Gastroenterostoma after Billroth antrectomy as a premalignant condition. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(25):3201–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nunobe S, Ohyama S, Miyata S, et al. Incidence of gastric cancer in the remnant stomach after proximal gastrectomy. Hepatogastroenterology. 2008;55(86–87):1855–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tersmette AC, Giardiello FM, Offerhaus GJ, et al. Geographical variance in the risk of gastric stump cancer: no increased risk in Japan? Jpn J Cancer Res. 1991;82(3):266–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lee SW, Tanigawa N, Nomura E, et al. Benefits of intracorporeal gastrointestinal anastomosis following laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. World J Surg Oncol. 2012;10:267.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Du J, Shuang J, Li J, et al. Totally laparoscopic Billroth II gastrectomy with a novel, safe, simple, and time-saving anastomosis by only stapling devices. J Gastrointest Surg. 2012;16(4):738–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lee J, Kim D, Kim W. Comparison of laparoscopy-assisted and totally laparoscopic Billroth-II distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. J Korean Surg Soc. 2012;82(3):135–42.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Oh SJ, Hong JJ, Oh CA, et al. Stapling technique for performing Billroth II anastomosis after distal gastrectomy. J Gastrointest Surg. 2011;15(7):1244–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kang KC, Cho GS, Han SU, et al. Korean Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery Study (KLASS) Group. Comparison of Billroth I and Billroth II reconstructions after laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy: a retrospective analysis of large-scale multicenter results from Korea. Surg Endosc. 2011;25(6):1953–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sah BK, Chen MM, Yan M, et al. Gastric cancer surgery: Billroth I or Billroth II for distal gastrectomy? BMC Cancer. 2009;9:428.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lagergren J, Lindam A. The risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma after gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease. Eur J Cancer. 2012;48(5):749–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Birgisson S, Rice TW, Easley KA, et al. The lack of association between adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric surgery: a retrospective study. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92(2):216–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Alexandrou A, Davis PA, Law S, et al. Esophageal cancer in patients with a history of distal gastrectomy. Arch Surg. 2002;137(11):1238–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hashimoto N, Inayama M, Fujishima M, et al. Esophageal cancer after distal gastrectomy. Dis Esophagus. 2006;19(5):346–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lorusso D, Pezzolla F, Linsalata M, et al. Duodenogastric reflux and gastric mucosal cell proliferation after cholecystectomy or Billroth II gastric resection. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1994;18(11):927–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Wilson P, Jamieson JR, Hinder RA, et al. Pathologic duodenogastric reflux associated with persistence of symptoms after cholecystectomy. Surgery. 1995;117(4):421–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Fein M, Bueter M, Sailer M, et al. Effect of cholecystectomy on gastric and esophageal bile reflux in patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53(5):1186–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Fall K, Ye W, Nyrén O. Risk for gastric cancer after cholecystectomy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102(6):1180–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Freedman J, Lagergren J, Bergström R, et al. Cholecystectomy, peptic ulcer disease and the risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and gastric cardia. Br J Surg. 2000;87(8):1087–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ge Z, Zhao C, Wang Y, et al. Cholecystectomy and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer. Saudi Med J. 2012;33(10):1073–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gustavsson S, Adami HO, Meirik O, et al. Cholecystectomy as a risk factor for gastric cancer. A cohort study. Dig Dis Sci. 1984;29(2):116–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Freedman J, Ye W, Näslund E, et al. Association between cholecystectomy and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Gastroenterology. 2001;121(3):548–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Lagergren J, Mattsson F. Cholecystectomy as a risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Br J Surg. 2011;98(8):1133–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Scozzari G, Trapani R, Toppino M, et al. Esophagogastric cancer after bariatric surgery: systematic review of the literature. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2013;9(1):133–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Inoue H, Rubino F, Shimada Y, et al. Risk of gastric cancer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Arch Surg. 2007;142(10):947–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rutledge R. Hospitalization before and after mini-gastric bypass surgery. Int J Surg. 2007;5(1):35–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Wang W, Wei PL, Lee YC, et al. Short-term results of laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2005;15(5):648–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Noun R, Zeidan S. Laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass: an effective option for the treatment of morbid obesity. J Chir (Paris). 2007;144(4):301–4 [Article in French].Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Chevallier JM, Chakhtoura G, Zinzindohoué F. [Laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass]. J Chir (Paris). 2009;146(1):60–4.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Copăescu C, Munteanu R, Prala N, et al. Laparoscopic mini gastric bypass for the treatment of morbid obesity. Initial experience. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2004;99(6):529–39 [Article in Romanian].Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hu XG, Zheng CZ, Ji XR, et al. Short-term outcome of laparoscopic gastric bypass and minigastric bypass on obesity patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2009;12(6):554–7 [Article in Chinese].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Guo X, Yin K, Zhuo GZ, et al. Efficacy comparison between 2 methods of laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2012;15(11):1125–8 [Article in Chinese].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lee WJ, Lee YC, Ser KH, et al. Revisional surgery for laparoscopic minigastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2011;7(4):486–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lee WJ, Wang W, Lee YC, et al. Effect of laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass for type 2 diabetes mellitus: comparison of BMI > 35 and <35 kg/m2. J Gastrointest Surg. 2008;12(5):945–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lee WJ, Wang W, Lee YC, et al. Laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass: experience with tailored bypass limb according to body weight. Obes Surg. 2008;18(3):294–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Noun R, Riachi E, Zeidan S, et al. Mini-gastric bypass by mini-laparotomy: a cost-effective alternative in the laparoscopic era. Obes Surg. 2007;17(11):1482–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mahawar KK, Jennings N, Brown J, Gupta A, Balupuri S, Small PK. “Mini” gastric bypass: systematic review of a controversial procedure. Obes Surg. 2003.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kuzmak LI, Yap IS, McGuire L, et al. Surgery for morbid obesity. Using an inflatable gastric band. AORN J. 1990;51(5):1307–24. Erratum in: AORN J 1990; 51(6): 1573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    de Csepel J, Burpee S, Jossart G, et al. Laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with a duodenal switch for morbid obesity: a feasibility study in pigs. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2001;11(2):79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Milone L, Strong V, Gagner M. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is superior to endoscopic intragastric balloon as a first stage procedure for super-obese patients (BMI > or =50). Obes Surg. 2005;15(5):612–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Buchwald H, Oien DM. Metabolic/bariatric surgery worldwide 2008. Obes Surg. 2009;19(12):1605–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lomanto D, Lee WJ, Goel R, et al. Bariatric surgery in Asia in the last 5 years (2005–2009). Obes Surg. 2012;22(3):502–6. Erratum in: Obes Surg. 2012 Feb;22(2):345. Fah, Chin Kin [corrected to Chin, Kin-Fah].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Himpens J, Cadière GB, Bazi M, et al. Long-term outcomes of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Arch Surg. 2011;146(7):802–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Stroh C, Hohmann U, Schramm H, et al. Fourteen-year long-term results after gastric banding. J Obes. 2011;2011:128451.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Weiner RA, Theodoridou S, Weiner S. Failure of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy—further procedure? Obes Facts. 2011;4 Suppl 1:42–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Gautier T, Sarcher T, Contival N, et al. Indications and mid-term results of conversion from sleeve gastrectomy to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2013;23(2):212–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Chiu S, Birch DW, Shi X, et al. Effect of sleeve gastrectomy on gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2011;7(4):510–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Azagury DE, Varban O, Tavakkolizadeh A, et al. Does laparoscopic gastric banding create hiatal hernias? Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2013;9(1):48–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kamal K. Mahawar
    • 1
  • William R. J. Carr
    • 1
  • Shlok Balupuri
    • 1
  • Peter K. Small
    • 1
  1. 1.Bariatric UnitSunderland Royal HospitalSunderlandUK

Personalised recommendations