Long-term Changes in Leptin, Chemerin and Ghrelin Levels Following Different Bariatric Surgery Procedures: Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy
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Different studies have evaluated changes in adipo/cytokine levels after bariatric surgery and have given conflicting results. The adipo/cytokines, leptin and chemerin, and the orexigenic hormone, ghrelin, have been shown to play a role in the regulation of metabolism and appetite. The aims of our study were to test the levels of these molecules after bariatric surgery and to compare the results between Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.
We analysed circulating levels of chemerin, ghrelin and leptin in 30 morbidly obese women (body mass index of >40 kg/m2). Subjects were studied at three time points: baseline (before the surgery started), and after 6 and 12 months.
After surgery, chemerin (baseline, 95.03 ± 23.79; after 12 months, 76.80 ± 21.51; p = 0.034) and leptin levels (baseline, 248.17 ± 89.16; after 12 months, 63.85 ± 33.48; p < 0.001) were significantly lower than their baseline levels, whereas ghrelin was higher (baseline, 0.87 ± 0.38; after 12 months, 1.08 ± 0.31; p = 0.010). Fasting glucose, insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels were markedly lower postoperatively. High-density lipoprotein levels moderately increased and triglyceride levels sharply decreased. There were no differences between the types of bariatric surgery in terms of weight reduction, general metabolic state or adipo/cytokine levels after surgery.
Our study demonstrates a marked decrease in fasting leptin and chemerin levels, and an increase in ghrelin levels, after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss, independently of the type of surgery performed. Further studies are needed on the interrelation between the changes in the circulating levels of these molecules and the efficacy of the bariatric surgery procedures to induce the beneficial metabolic changes and to sustain body weight loss.
KeywordsBariatric surgery Body weight loss Predictive model Insulin resistance Metabolic syndrome
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