Obesity Surgery

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 39–49

Eating Behavior and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1-Producing Cells in Interposed Ileum and Pancreatic Islets in Rats Subjected to Ileal Interposition Associated with Sleeve Gastrectomy

  • Helene Johannessen
  • Yosuke Kodama
  • Chun-Mei Zhao
  • Mirta M L Sousa
  • Geir Slupphaug
  • Bård Kulseng
  • Duan Chen
Animal Research



Ileal interposition–sleeve gastrectomy (II–SG) has been developed as a metabolic surgery based on the hindgut hypothesis. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis by studying the eating behavior, metabolic changes, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-producing cells in rat models.


Male Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to laparotomy, II, SG, or II–SG. Eating behavior and metabolic parameters were monitored by an open-circuit indirect calorimeter designed for a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system. GLP-1-producing cells were examined by quantitative immunohistochemistry.


After II alone, satiety ratio, i.e., intermeal interval/meal size, was reduced, while calorie intake was increased at 2 and 6 weeks postoperatively. Respiratory exchange ratio, VCO2/VO2, was increased to above 1.0 (i.e., carbohydrate metabolism) during both daytime and nighttime at 2 weeks postoperatively. After SG alone, GLP-1-producing cells were increased in the pancreatic islets (in terms of volume density), but not in the ileum (number/mm). After II–SG, the rate of eating was reduced, while meal duration (min) was increased during both daytime and nighttime at 2 weeks postoperatively. GLP-1-producing cells were increased by about 2.5-fold in the interposed ileum and also increased to the same extent in the pancreatic islets as seen after SG alone. The increased GLP-1-producing cells in the pancreatic islets after SG or II–SG were located around the insulin-producing β cells.


The present study provides evidence supporting the hindgut hypothesis. II–SG increased GLP-1 production both in the interposed ileum and in the pancreatic islets, leading to metabolic beneficial effects and altered eating behavior.


Food intake GLP-1 Ileal interposition Ileum Pancreatic islets Sleeve gastrectomy Energy expenditure Respiratory exchange ratio 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helene Johannessen
    • 1
  • Yosuke Kodama
    • 1
  • Chun-Mei Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mirta M L Sousa
    • 1
  • Geir Slupphaug
    • 1
  • Bård Kulseng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Duan Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Cancer Research and Molecular MedicineNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Department of SurgerySt. Olav’s University HospitalTrondheimNorway

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