Obesity Surgery

, Volume 22, Issue 10, pp 1648–1657

Gut Hormones and Leptin: Impact on Energy Control and Changes After Bariatric Surgery—What the Future Holds



Obesity is now considered the new world epidemic. In an attempt to face this menace to public health, several treatments, apart from the traditional nutritional modification and oral medication, have been introduced, among them bariatric surgery and gut hormone-based treatments. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a powerful endocrine organ, releasing active peptides and influencing appetite and glycaemic control. Alteration of the GI tract, in ways that exaggerate the secretion and levels of the gut hormones, creates a new functional equilibrium that further contributes to weight loss. The purpose of this review is to explore the mechanisms that drive this gut hormone-derived body regulation, as well as the changes that occur to them after bariatric surgery. Close to that, leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue will be analysed, as its pathways are closely related to those of the gut hormones. Gut hormones are strongly implicated in energy control, and various effects of bariatric surgery in weight loss are directly related to the alteration of the levels of these hormones.


Gut peptides Bariatric surgery Energy control 



Agouti-related peptide


AMP-activated protein kinase


Arcuate nucleus


Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone


Body mass index


Central nervous system


Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript


Dipeptidyl peptidase-4


Growth hormone secretagogue receptor


Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide


Glucagon-like peptide-1


Glycated haemoglobin


Homeostasis assessment model of insulin resistance


Neuropeptide Y


Nucleus of the solitary tract






Pancreatic polypeptide


Paraventricular nucleus


Peptide YY(3–36)


Roux-en-Y gastric bypass


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Barts and the London School of MedicineLondonUK
  2. 2.Experimetal Pathology, Conway Institute, School of Medicine and Medical SciencesUniversity College DublinDublinIreland
  3. 3.Barts and the London HospitalLondonUK

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