Carbohydrate Content of Post-operative Diet Influences the Effect of Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy on Body Weight Reduction in Obese Rats
- 337 Downloads
Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) effectively reduces body weight (BW) in obese rats and humans. However, post-surgical weight regain is frequently observed in subjects after VSG, but the underlying reasons remain poorly understood. We therefore investigated if post-surgical consumption of different diets can affect the outcome of VSG.
VSG or sham operation was performed in Long–Evans rats with diet-induced obesity (n = 37). After post-surgical recovery, rats were fed ad libitum either with standard chow (CH), high-fat (HF) or low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diets. BW and food intake were measured every second day; serum leptin, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were analyzed 4 weeks after surgery. Energy expenditure and locomotor activity were determined by a combined indirect calorimetry system, lean and fat mass by nuclear magnetic resonance.
After 4 weeks, BW gain, fat mass, and leptin were lower in VSG rats when compared to sham controls (p < 0.05). Energy expenditure and locomotor activity were not affected by VSG indicating that weight reduction derives from the significantly lower cumulative 4-week energy intake in VSG compared to sham. Sham rats fed LCHF consumed the most energy, followed by rats fed HF. In contrast, after VSG cumulative energy intake was highest in rats fed HF, but not different between CH and LCHF. Consistently, post-surgical BW and fat mass regain were highest in the HF-VSG group. Lipid profiles were improved by VSG but not differentially affected by diets.
In conclusion, consumption of a HF diet but not the more energy-dense LCHF diet reduced the effectiveness of VSG in rats.
KeywordsBariatric surgery Obesity Low-carbohydrate/high fat diet Western-style diet Food preference Energy expenditure Cholesterol
All authors have nothing to disclose. RJS serves as a paid consultant and speaker on the behalf of Ethicon Endo-Surgery.
This work was supported by Ethicon Endo-Surgery and the “Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft” [DFG (Ste1466/4-1)].
- 3.Bielohuby M, Sawitzky M, Stoehr BJ, et al. Lack of dietary carbohydrates induces hepatic growth hormone (GH) resistance in rats. Endocrinology 2011.Google Scholar
- 8.Delling L, Karason K, Olbers T, et al. Feasibility of bariatric surgery as a strategy for secondary prevention in cardiovascular disease: a report from the Swedish obese subjects trial. J Obes 2010: 2010.Google Scholar
- 12.Haufe S, Engeli S, Kast P, et al. Randomized comparison of reduced fat and reduced carbohydrate hypocaloric diets on intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese human subjects. Hepatology. 2011.Google Scholar
- 19.Kim JY, Yang YH, Kim CN, et al. Effects of very-low-carbohydrate (horsemeat- or beef-based) diets and restricted feeding on weight gain, feed and energy efficiency, as well as serum levels of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, insulin and ketone bodies in adult rats. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;53:260–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Kohli R, Stefater MA, Inge TH. Molecular insights from bariatric surgery. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2011.Google Scholar
- 30.Stefater MA, Perez-Tilve D, Chambers AP, et al. Sleeve gastrectomy induces loss of weight and fat mass in obese rats, but does not affect leptin sensitivity. Gastroenterology 138: 2426–2436, 2436 e2421-2423, 2010.Google Scholar