Obesity Surgery

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 283–286 | Cite as

Gastric Bypass Does Not Influence Olfactory Function in Obese Patients

  • Brynn E. Richardson
  • Eric A. Vanderwoude
  • Ranjan Sudan
  • Donald A. Leopold
  • Jon S. Thompson
Clinical Report

Abstract

Morbidly obese individuals have altered sense of taste and smell. Gastric bypass (GBP) alters taste but olfactory function has not been evaluated. Changes in these senses may influence dietary preferences following GBP. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of abdominal operation, specifically GBP, and weight loss on olfactory function. Fifty-five persons undergoing GBP and cholecystectomy and 40 persons undergoing cholecystectomy (CC) alone were administered the Cross Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT) preoperatively and 2 and 6 weeks postoperatively. Patients undergoing GBP underwent further tests at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Body mass index (BMI) was also assessed. Mean BMI was significantly greater preoperatively in the GBP group (50.6 ± 8.0 vs. 30.6 ± 7.3 kg/m2, p < 0.05). Significantly more GBP patients had abnormal CC-SIT results preoperatively (12.7% vs. 5.0%). There were no significant differences in percentage of abnormal tests at 2 and 6 weeks within groups but remained lower in CC patients (2 weeks, GBP 6.2% vs. CC 5.7%; 6 weeks, GBP 9.8% vs. CC 3.2%, p < .05). BMI decreased in the GBP group at 12 months (50.6 ± 8.0 preoperatively to 31.9 ± 6.9 p < 0.05). Absolute olfactory dysfunction (AOD) was present at each interval up to 12 months after GBP. Only 22% of patients with AOD remained obese. GBP does not appear to influence olfactory function. AOD present in morbidly obese persons is not affected by weight loss. These findings support that olfactory dysfunction may be a contributing factor to the development of obesity.

Keywords

Gastric bypass Obesity Olfaction 

References

  1. 1.
    Thompson DA, Moskowitz HR, Campbell RG. Taste and olfaction in human obesity. Physiol Behav. 1977;19:335–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Richardson BE, Vander Woude EA, Sudan R, et al. Altered olfactory acuity in the morbidly obese. Obes Surg. 2004;14:967–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burge JC, Schamberg JZ, Choban PS, et al. Changes in patient’s taste acuity after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for clinically severe obesity. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995;95:666–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Scruggs DM, Buffington C, Cowan GM. Taste acuity of the morbidly obese before and after gastric bypass surgery. Obesity Surg. 1994;4:24–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chamay-Weber C, Hoppin AG, Rizzo C, et al. Does weight loss surgery change taste sensitivity? JPEN. 2003;27:533–4.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Doty RL, Marcus A, Lee WW. Development of the 12-item cross-cultural smell identification test (CC-SIT). Laryngoscope. 1996;106:353–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Obrebowski A, Obrebowska-Karsznia Z, Gawlinski M. Smell and taste in children with simple obesity. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2000;55:191–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shimizu Y, Yamazaki M, Nakanishi K, et al. Enhanced responses of the chorda tympani nerve to sugars in the ventromedial hypothalamic obese rat. J Neurophysiol. 2003;90:128–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Karlsson AC, Lindroos AK, Lissner I, et al. Evidence for gender-specific associations between leptin and olfaction. J Gender Specif Med. 2002;5:25–32.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Van Dielen FM, Van’t Veer C, Buurman WA, et al. Leptin and soluble leptin receptor levels in obese and weight-losing individuals. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:1708–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cho YM, Kim MS, Shin ES, et al. Dynamic change in plasma leptin levels during the perioperative period. Hormone Res. 2003;59:100–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brynn E. Richardson
    • 2
  • Eric A. Vanderwoude
    • 3
  • Ranjan Sudan
    • 4
  • Donald A. Leopold
    • 2
  • Jon S. Thompson
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  4. 4.Department of SurgeryDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  5. 5.983280 Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA

Personalised recommendations