Obesity Surgery

, Volume 19, Issue 11, pp 1586–1590 | Cite as

A Surgical Rat Model of Sleeve Gastrectomy with Staple Technique: Long-Term Weight Loss Results

  • Panagiotis Patrikakos
  • Konstantinos G. ToutouzasEmail author
  • Despoina Perrea
  • Evangelos Menenakos
  • Alkistis Pantopoulou
  • Theodore Thomopoulos
  • Stefanos Papadopoulos
  • John I. Bramis
Animal Research



Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is one of the surgical procedures applied for treating morbid obesity consisting of removing the gastric fundus and transforming the stomach into a narrow gastric tube. The aim of this experimental study is to create a functional model of SG and to present the long-term weight loss results.


Twenty adult Wistar rats were fed with high fat diet for 12 weeks before being divided randomly in two groups of ten rats each. One group underwent SG performed with the use of staples, and the other group underwent a sham operation (control group). The animals’ weight was evaluated weekly for 15 weeks after the operation.


All animals survived throughout the experiment. After the operation both groups started to lose weight with maximum weight loss on the seventh postoperative day (POD) for the sham-operated group and on the 15th POD for the SG group. Thereafter, both groups started to regain weight but with different rates. By the fourth postoperative week (POW), the average weight of the sham group did not differ statistically significantly compared to the preoperative weight, while after the eighth POW, rats' average weight was statistically significantly increased compared to the preoperative value. On the other hand, average weight of the SG group was lower postoperatively until the end of the study compared to the preoperative average weight.


We have created a surgical rat model of experimental SG model, enabling the further study of biochemical and hormonal parameters.


Morbid obesity Sleeve gastrectomy Animal model Metabolic surgery 


  1. 1.
    Samer G, Mattar MD. Lifting the unbearable weight of morbid obesity. Ann Surg. 2008;247:28–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Caelew J, Rizzo J, Haas K. Occupation-specific absenteeism costs associated with obesity and morbid obesity. JOEM. 2007;49:1317–24.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kaplan LM. Body weight regulation and obesity. J Gastrointestinal Surg. 2003;7:443–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Safer DJ. Diet, behavior modification, and exercise: a review of obesity treatments from a long-term perspective. South Med J. 1991;84:1470–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wadden TA, Butryn ML, Byrne KJ. Efficacy of lifestyle modification for long-term weight control. Obes Res. 2004;12:151S–62S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wadden TA, Sternberg JA, Letizia KA, et al. Treatment of obesity by very-low-calorie diet, behavior therapy, and their combination: a five-year perspective. Int J Obes. 1989;51:167–72.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA. Drug therapy: obesity. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:591–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stevens VJ, Obarzanek E, Cook NR, et al. Long-term weight loss and changes in blood pressures: results of the trials of hypertension prevention, phase II. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134:1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rosen DJ, Dakin GF, Pomp A. Sleeve gastrectomy. Minerva Chir. 2009;64(3):285–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Almogy G, Crookes PF, Anthone GJ. Longitudinal gastrectomy as a treatment for the high-risk super-obese patient. Obes Surg. 2004;14:492–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Regan JP, Inabnet WB, Gagner M, et al. Early experience with two-stage laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass as an alternative in the super-super obese patient. Obes Surg. 2003;13:861–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baltasar A, Serra C, Pérez N, et al. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a multi-purpose bariatric operation. Obes Surg. 2005;15:1124–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tucker ON, Szomstein S, Rosenthal RJ. Indications for sleeve gastrectomy as a primary procedure for weight loss in the morbidly obese. J Gastrointest Surg. 2008;12:662–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lin E, Gletsu N, Fugate K, et al. The effects of gastric surgery on systemic ghrelin levels in the morbidly obese. Arch Surg. 2004;139:780–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang Y, Liu J. Plasma ghrelin modulation in gastric band operation and sleeve gastrectomy. Obes Surg. 2009;19:357–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bernstine H, Tzioni-Yehosua R, Groshar D, et al. Gastric emptying is not affected by sleeve gastrectomy-scintigraphic evaluation if gastric emptying after sleeve gastrectomy without removal of the gastric antrum. Obes Surg. 2009;19:293–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Melissas J, Daskalakis M, Koukouraki S, et al. Sleeve gastrectomy—a “food limiting” operation. Obes Surg. 2008;18:1251–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Buchwald H, Avidor Y, Braunwald E, et al. Bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2004;292:1724–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kral J, Näslund E. Surgical treatment of obesity. Endocrinol Metab. 2007;3:574–83.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Elder K, Wolfe B. Bariatric surgery: a review of procedures and outcomes. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:2253–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hamoui N, Anthone GJ, Kaufman HS, et al. Sleeve gastrectomy in the high-risk patient. Obes Surg. 2006;16:1445–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Himpens J, Dapri G, Cadie‘re GB. A prospective randomized study between laparoscopic gastric banding and laparoscopic isolated sleeve gastrectomy: results after 1 and 3 years. Obes Surg. 2006;16:1450–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Silecchia G, Boru C, Pecchia A, et al. Effectiveness of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (first stage of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch) on comorbidities in superobese high-risk patients. Obes Surg. 2006;16:1138–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vidal J, Ibarzabal A, Nicolau J, et al. Short-term effects of sleeve gastrectomy on type 2 diabetes mellitus in severely obese subjects. Obes Surg. 2007;17:1069–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Weiner RA, Weiner S, Pomhoff I, et al. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: influence of sleeve size and resected gastric volume. Obes Surg. 2007;17:1297–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chuang JH, Li H. Similarity of synonymous substitution rates across mammalian genomes. Mol Evol. 2007;65:236–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Banting FG, Best CH. Pancreatic extracts 1922. J Lab Clin Med. 1990;115:254–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Castelan JB, Bettiol J, Acampora AJ, et al. Sleeve gastrectomy model in wistar rats. Obes Surg. 2007;17:957–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panagiotis Patrikakos
    • 1
  • Konstantinos G. Toutouzas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Despoina Perrea
    • 2
  • Evangelos Menenakos
    • 1
  • Alkistis Pantopoulou
    • 2
  • Theodore Thomopoulos
    • 1
  • Stefanos Papadopoulos
    • 1
  • John I. Bramis
    • 1
  1. 1.1st Propaedeutic Surgical DepartmentUniversity of Athens, Hippokration HospitalAthensGreece
  2. 2.Laboratory for Experimental Surgery and Surgical Research N.S. ChristeasUniversity of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations