Obesity Surgery

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 375–379

Combination of Bypassing Stomach and Vagus Dissection in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats—A Long-Term Investigation

Animal Research



Gastric bypass is the most popular technique in obesity therapy. We hypothesize that bypass surgery can help to control the body weight in morbid obesity, and this effect can be enhanced by vagus dissection.


Thirty-six Wistar rats were used in this investigation. They were randomly allocated into six groups. Rats in the gastric bypass group (GB1 and GB2) and the bypass with vagus dissection group (VD1 and VD2) received surgery. Rats in the control group (CO1 and CO2) received sham operation. Twenty days later, rats in the CO1, GB1, and VD1 groups were killed and data on body weights, food intakes, fasting glucose, plasma ghrelin and leptin levels, and GHS-R1a and leptin receptor protein expression in the hypothalamus were collected and summarized. One hundred days later, rats in the CO2, GB2, and VD2 groups were also killed and the same experiments were repeated.


Body weights of rats were 258 ± 4.2 and 232 ± 2.4 g in the GB1 and VD1 groups, respectively, much lower than the CO1 group (303 ± 6.9 g). Body weights of rats were 316 ± 12.3 and 315 ± 10.3 g in the GB2 and VD2 groups, respectively, much lower than the CO2 group. Food intake in the VD1 group was lower than in the GB1 group, while there were no statistical differences between the VD2 and GB2 groups. Fasting glucose in the GB1 and GB2 groups was much lower than the CO1 and CO2 groups. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were much lower in the GB1 and VD1 groups compared to the CO1 group. One hundred days after surgery, the ghrelin concentrations in the GB2 and VD2 groups were also much lower than the CO2 group. Leptin concentrations decreased significantly with weight loss after bypass surgery. GHS-R1a protein expression in the hypothalamus was much lower in the GB1 and VD1 groups compared to the CO1 group. GHS-R1a protein expressions in the GB2 and VD2 groups were lower than the CO2 group. There were no statistical differences in leptin receptor expression in the hypothalamus (not shown).


Vagus nerve dissection is effective on body weight control in the early stage, but not in the long term. The hypothalamus is important in weight control by modulating ghrelin and leptin expressions. Bypass surgery can modulate the expression of ghrelin and its receptor. Leptin is also modulated by bypass surgery.


Gastric bypass Vagus dissection Obesity Ghrelin Growth hormone secretagogue receptor Leptin 


  1. 1.
    Deitel M. The European Charter on counteracting obesity. Obes Surg. 2007;17:143–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guijarro A, Kirchner H, Meguid MM. Catabolic effects of gastric bypass in a diet-induced obese rat model. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006;9:423–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen CM. Overview of obesity in Mainland China. Obes Rev. 2008;9(Suppl 1):14–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Klein S, Fontana L, Young VL, et al. Absence of an effect of liposuction on insulin action and risk factors for coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2549–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kelley DE. Thermodynamics, liposuction, and metabolism. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2542–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, et al. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2000. JAMA. 2002;288:1723–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Steinbrook R. Surgery for severe obesity. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1075–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pinkney JH, Sjostrom CD, Gale EA. Should surgeons treat diabetes in severely obese people? Lancet. 2001;357:1357–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Couzin J. Medicine. Bypassing medicine to treat diabetes. Science. 2008;320:438–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Asakawa A, Inui A, Kaga T, et al. Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulatory signal from stomach with structural resemblance to motilin. Gastroenterology. 2001;120:337–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fukuda H, Mizuta Y, Isomoto H, et al. Ghrelin enhances gastric motility through direct stimulation of intrinsic neural pathways and capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurones in rats. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2004;39:1209–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Garcia VF, DeMaria EJ. Adolescent bariatric surgery: treatment delayed, treatment denied, a crisis invited. Obes Surg. 2006;16:1–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Inge TH, Xanthakos SA, Zeller MH. Bariatric surgery for pediatric extreme obesity: now or later? Int J Obes (Lond). 2007;31:1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cummings DE, Weigle DS, Frayo RS, et al. Plasma ghrelin levels after diet-induced weight loss or gastric bypass surgery. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1623–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang JV, Ren PG, Avsian-Kretchmer O, et al. Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effects on food intake. Science. 2005;310:996–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nogueiras R, Tschop M. Biomedicine. Separation of conjoined hormones yields appetite rivals. Science. 2005;310:985–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bonatto SJ, Folador A, Aikawa J, et al. Lifelong exposure to dietary fish oil alters macrophage responses in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Cell Immunol. 2004;231:56–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sobocki J, Fourtanier G, Estany J, et al. Does vagal nerve stimulation affect body composition and metabolism? Experimental study of a new potential technique in bariatric surgery. Surgery. 2006;139:209–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Berthoud HR. Vagal and hormonal gut–brain communication: from satiation to satisfaction. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20(Suppl 1):64–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Marx J. Cellular warriors at the battle of the bulge. Science. 2003;299:846–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grill HJ, Kaplan JM. The neuroanatomical axis for control of energy balance. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2002;23:2–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Middleton FA, Ramos EJ, Xu Y, et al. Application of genomic technologies: DNA microarrays and metabolic profiling of obesity in the hypothalamus and in subcutaneous fat. Nutrition. 2004;20:14–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Romanova IV, Ramos EJ, Xu Y, et al. Neurobiologic changes in the hypothalamus associated with weight loss after gastric bypass. J Am Coll Surg. 2004;199:887–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kojima M, Hosoda H, Date Y, et al. Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach. Nature. 1999;402:656–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Flier JS. Neuroscience. Regulating energy balance: the substrate strikes back. Science. 2006;312:861–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hepatobiliary DepartmentShengjing HospitalShenyangChina

Personalised recommendations