Obesity Surgery Results Depending on Technique Performed: Long-Term Outcome
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Many techniques have excellent results at 2 years of follow-up but some matters regarding their long-term efficacy have arisen. This is why bariatric surgery results must be analyzed in long-term follow-up. The aim of this study was to extend the analysis over 5 years, evaluating weight loss, morbidity, and mortality of the surgical procedures performed.
This was a retrospective cohort study of the different procedures for morbid obesity practiced in our Department of Surgery for morbid obesity. The results have been analyzed in terms of weight loss, morbidity improvement, and postoperative morbidity (Bariatric Analysis And Reporting Outcome System).
One hundred twenty-five patients were operated on open vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), 150 patients of open biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) of Scopinaro, 100 patients of open modified BPD (common limb 75 cm; alimentary limb 225 cm), and 115 patients of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). Mean follow-up was: VBG 12 years, BPD 7 years, and LRYGBP 4 years. An excellent initial weight loss was observed at the end of the second year of follow-up in all techniques, but from this time an important regain of weight was observed in VBG group and a discrete weight regain in LRYGBP group. Only BPD groups kept excellent weight results so far in time. Mortality was: VBG 1.6%, BPD 1.2%, and LRYGBP 0%. Early postoperative complications were: VBG 25%, BPD 20.4%, and LRYGBP 20%. Late postoperative morbidity was: protein malnutrition 11% in Scopinaro BPD, 3% in Modified BPD group, and no cases reported either in VBG group or LRYGBP group; iron deficiency 20% VBG, 62% Scopinaro BPD, 40% modified BPD, and 30.5% LRYGBP. A 14.5% of VBG group required revision surgery to gastric bypass or to BPD due to 100% weight regain or vomiting. A 3.2% of Scopinaro BPD with severe protein malnutrition required revision surgery to lengthen common limb to 100 cm. A 0.8% of LRYGBP required revision surgery to distal LRYGBP (common limb 75 cm) due to 100% weight regain.
The most complex bariatric procedures increase the effectiveness but unfortunately they also increase morbidity and mortality. LRYGBP is safe and effective for the treatment of morbid obesity. Modified BPD (75–225 cm) can be considered for the treatment of superobesity (body mass index > 50 kg/m2), and restrictive procedures such as VBG should only be performed in well-selected patients due to high rates of failure in long-term follow-up.
KeywordsMorbid obesity Bariatric surgery Biliopancreatic diversion Laparoscopic gastric bypass Vertical banded gastroplasty