Advertisement

Obesity Surgery

, Volume 19, Issue 6, pp 777–782 | Cite as

Additional Effect of Visceral Fat Resection in an Obese Rat Model of Gastric Banding

  • Yuichi EndoEmail author
  • Masayuki Ohta
  • Teijiro Hirashita
  • Hidetoshi Eguchi
  • Seiichiro Kai
  • Seigo Kitano
Research Article

Abstract

Background

There is accumulating agreement that bariatric surgery is currently the most efficacious and enduring treatment for clinically severe obesity, and as a result, the number of bariatric surgeries performed worldwide has increased in recent years. Although the function of visceral fat has gradually become clear, the effect of visceral fat resection is still unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the additional effect of visceral fat resection in an obese rat model of gastric banding.

Methods

Forty male Zucker fatty rats were divided into four groups: the control group, visceral fat resection group, gastric banding group, and gastric banding with visceral fat resection group. They were followed for 8 weeks after surgery, and their body weight change, cumulative food intake, metabolic parameters, and adipocytokines were measured.

Results

The gastric banding rats either with or without visceral fat resection showed significant decreases in weight gain, cumulative food intake, and levels of metabolic parameters compared to the control rats. There were no significant differences in weight gain and cumulative food intake between gastric banding with and without visceral fat resection. However, gastric banding with visceral fat resection resulted in lower plasma levels of free fatty acid and TNF-alpha compared to gastric banding alone, and expression of adiponectin mRNA in the adipose tissue was significantly decreased with the addition of visceral fat resection compared with banding alone. There were no significant differences in any parameters between controls and rats receiving visceral fat resection alone.

Conclusion

Visceral fat resection may improve adipocytokines and free fatty acid in an obese rat model of gastric banding. However, further studies are necessary before the procedure can be considered an option on bariatric surgery.

Keywords

Visceral fat resection Gastric banding Zucker fatty rat Bariatric surgery Morbid obesity 

References

  1. 1.
    Prentice AM. The emerging epidemic of obesity in developing countries. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35:93–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. WHO Obesity Technical Report Series 894. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2000.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    National Institute of Health. Gastrointestinal surgery for severe obesity. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:S615–S619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Puzziferri N, Blankenship J, Wolfe BM. Surgical treatment of obesity. Endocrine. 2006;29:11–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buchwald H, Williams SE. Bariatric surgery worldwide 2003. Obes Surg. 2004;14:1157–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fujimoto WY, Bergstorm RW, Byoko EJ, et al. Visceral adiposity and incident coronary heart disease in Japanese-American men. The 10-year follow-up results of the Seattle Japanese-American Community Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care. 1999;22:1808–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ferrannini E, Natali A, Capaldo B, et al. Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and blood pressure: role of age and obesity. European Group for the study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR). Hypertension. 1997;30:1144–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barzilai N, She L, Liu BQ, et al. Surgical removal of visceral fat reverses hepatic insulin resistance. Diabetes. 1999;48:94–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim YW, Kim JY, Lee SK. Surgical removal of visceral fat decreases plasma free fatty acid and increases insulin sensitivity on liver and peripheral tissue in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats. J Korean Med Sci. 1999;14:539–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gabriely I, Ma XH, Yang XM, et al. Removal of visceral fat prevents insulin resistance and glucose intolerance of aging: an adipokine-mediated process? Diabetes. 2002;51:2951–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thörne A, Lönnqvist F, Apleman J, et al. A pilot study of long-term effects of a novel obesity treatment: omentectomy in connection with adjustable gastric banding. Int J Obes. 2002;26:193–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Santoro S, Malzoni CE, Velhote MC, et al. Digestive adaptation with intestinal reserve: a neuroendocrine-based operation for morbid obesity. Obes Surg. 2006;16:1371–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Endo Y, Ohta M, Kai S, et al. An obese rat model of bariatric surgery with gastric banding. Obes Surg. 2007;17:815–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Argiles JM. The obese Zucker rat: a choice for fat metabolism. Prog Lipid Res. 1989;28:53–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Phillips MS, Liu Q, Hammond HA, et al. Leptin receptor missense mutation in the fatty Zucker rat. Nat Genet. 1996;13:18–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yamashita T, Murakami T, Iida M, et al. Leptin receptor of zucker fatty rat performs reduced signal transduction. Diabetes. 1997;46:1077–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rubino F, Zizzari P, Tomasetto C, et al. The role of the small bowel in the regulation of circulating ghrelin levels and food intake in the obese zucker rat. Endocrinology. 2005;146:1745–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pitombo C, Arújo EP, de Souza CT, et al. Amelioration of diet-induced diabetes mellitus by removal of visceral fat. J Endocrinol. 2006;191:699–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mattews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, et al. Homeostasis model assesment: insulin resistance and β-cell function fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentration in man. Diabetologia. 1985;28:412–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Morino M, Toppino M, Forestieri P, et al. Mortality after bariatric surgery: analysis of 13,871 morbidly obese patients from a national registry. Ann Surg. 2007;246:1002–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Elder KA, Wolfe BM. Bariatric surgery: a review of procedures and outcomes. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:2253–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Buchwald H, Avidor Y, Braunwald E, et al. Bariatric surgery: a systemic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2004;292:1724–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Flum DR, Dellinger EP. Impact of gastric bypass operation on survival: a population-based analysis. J Am Coll Surg. 2004;199:543–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fernandez AZ Jr, Demaria EJ, Tichansky DS, et al. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for death following gastric bypass for treatment of morbid obesity. Ann Surg. 2004;239:698–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Arita Y, Kihara S, Ouchi N, et al. Paradoxical decrease of an adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in obesity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;257:79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Degawa-Yamauchi M, Moss KA, Bovenkerk JE, et al. Regulation of adiponectin expression in human adipocytes: effects of adiposity, Glucocorticoids, and tumor necrosis factor α. Obes Res. 2005;13:662–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bruun JM, Lihn AS, Verdich C, et al. Regulation of adiponectin by adipose tissue-derived cytokines: in vivo investigations in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;285:E527–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Feldstein AE, Werneburg NW, Canbay A, et al. Free fatty acids promote hepatic lipotoxicity by stimulating TNF-α expression via a lysosomal pathway. Hepatology. 2004;40:185–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuichi Endo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masayuki Ohta
    • 1
  • Teijiro Hirashita
    • 1
  • Hidetoshi Eguchi
    • 1
  • Seiichiro Kai
    • 1
  • Seigo Kitano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgery IOita University Faculty of MedicineYufuJapan

Personalised recommendations