Muscle Force and Force Control After Weight Loss in Obese and Morbidly Obese Men
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Decrease in fat mass and fat-free mass have been observed with weight loss induced by a dietary intervention or surgery. There are concerns that fat-free mass decrease could have some negative functional consequences. The aim of this study was to examine how weight loss affects strength and force control in obese and morbidly obese men.
Weight loss was obtained in obese individuals by a hypocaloric diet program until resistance to lose fat and in morbidly obese individuals by bariatric surgery. Maximal force was measured for upper and lower limb and the ability to maintain 15% and 40% of that force. These measures were taken at baseline, in those dieting once resistant to weight loss and 1 year after surgery for those operated on. Normal weight individuals used for control were evaluated twice (6 to 12 months apart).
At baseline, there was no significant difference between groups for maximal forces and capabilities to maintain force levels. Weight loss averaged 11.1% of the initial body weight after dieting and 46.3% 1 year after surgery. At the same time, there was for the lower limb a loss of 10.1% in maximal force after dieting and 33.5% after surgery. For the upper limb, there was no change in maximal force after dieting whereas a decrease of 14.4% was observed after surgery. When transformed in force related to body weight, there was no change in relative force for the lower limb after dieting whereas an increased relative force after surgery. There was no significant difference for the ability for maintaining force levels.
Despite a large force loss, particularly for the lower limbs in morbidly obese individuals after surgery, this loss is relatively well tolerated because the relation between force and body weight is even improved and the ability to maintain that force is preserved.
KeywordsObesity Weight loss Muscular strength Force control Diet restriction Bariatric surgery
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