Investigation and determination of acrylamide in 24 types of roasted nuts and seeds using microextraction method coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry: central composite design
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Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen which could produce during food processing via Maillard reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars at elevated temperatures. In this study, microextraction technique was developed for the quantitative analysis of acrylamide in 24 types of roasted nuts and seeds including almond, pistachio, peanut and hazelnut and roasted seeds including sunflower, pumpkin and watermelon. Dispersive liquid liquid microextraction coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (DLLME–GC–MS) used for acrylamide determination in samples. Critical parameters in analysis step were studied and optimized using central composite design. The risk assessment estimation was done by Monte Carlo Simulation. The detection limit and quantitation limit of offered technique were calculated 0.6 and 2 µg/kg, respectively. The recovery percent for acrylamide in samples was higher than 95%. Relative standard deviation was obtained 8.9% (n = 6). The method was showed good linearity (R2 = 0.998) in the range of 5–500 µg/kg. According to the results, acrylamide level in roasted nuts and seeds is variable between 33.36 and 250.90 µg/kg. The highest mean value of acrylamide was found in roasted almond at concentration 176.88 µg/kg and the lowest amount of acrylamide was detected in roasted hazelnuts at concentration 90.61 µg/kg. Divergences in acrylamide amounts in samples were attributed to differences in their composition, roasting time and temperature used in their manufacture. Our results showed that dietary acrylamide exposure through intake of roasted nuts and seeds, is relatively low and the risk of carcinogenicity is considerable.
KeywordsAcrylamide Roasted nut Roasted seed Microextration Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry Risk assessment Central composite design
This work was supported by the Department of Food Science and Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Food Science and Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. We gratefully acknowledge their assistance.
Dr. Mohammadi has received research grants from National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Amene Nematollahi declares that she has no conflict of interest. Marzieh Kamankesh declares that she has no conflict of interest. Hedayat Hosseini declares that he has no conflict of interest. Zahra Hadian declares that she has no conflict of interest. Jahanbakhsh Ghasemi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Abdorreza Mohammadi declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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