Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 2626–2636 | Cite as

Optimization of gamma-aminobutyric acid production in a model system containing soy protein and inulin by Lactobacillus brevis fermentation

  • Zahra Zareie
  • Farideh Tabatabaei YazdiEmail author
  • Seyed Ali Mortazavi
Original Paper


Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an active bio-compound with versatile physiological functions and, therefore, considerable attention is given to developing GABA-enriched functional foods. In this study, central composite design was used to optimize the fermentation conditions to obtain the highest GABA yield by Lactobacillus brevis. The optimal conditions of GABA production (1473.44 ppm) included 5% soy protein isolate, 3% inulin, and 96 h fermenting time at 37 °C. GABA-rich fermented solution (GABA-EFS) under optimal conditions had an appropriate emulsifying activity and water/oil holding capacity. Also, the reducing power assay revealed that GABA-EFS has electron donor groups with the ability to terminate the free radical chain reactions. Minimum inhibitory concentration results showed that Candida albicans was the most sensitive microorganism; whilst, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua were the most resistant bacteria towards GABA-EFS. In addition, GABA production was confirmed by pre-staining thin layer chromatography and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results suggested that the GABA-EFS could be applied in the food industry as a functional product.


Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Optimization Soy protein Inulin Lactobacillus brevis Functional properties 



The authors of this paper acknowledge the support of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) through Project 46386.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zahra Zareie
    • 1
  • Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Seyed Ali Mortazavi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of AgricultureFerdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM)MashhadIran

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