Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 2481–2490 | Cite as

Microwave assisted convective drying of bitter gourd: drying kinetics and effect on ascorbic acid, total phenolics and antioxidant activity

  • Insha ZahoorEmail author
  • Mohammad Ali Khan
Original Paper


Bitter gourds were dried by convective drying (CD) at 40, 50 and 60 °C and by microwave assisted convective drying (MACD) at 40, 50 and 60 °C combined with microwave power at 320, 400, and 480 W. In MACD, temperature and microwave power were applied synchronously. Quality of dried products in terms of ascorbic acid content, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, vitamin A, DPPH radical scavenging activity, rehydration ratio, and total color change were compared. The drying rate increased with an increase in air temperature and microwave power. The MACD technique shortened the drying time compared to the CD. Prolonged drying time caused more deterioration of ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity than higher temperatures. In MACD, the total phenolic content and total flavonoid content did not degrade at elevated temperatures due to faster and homogenous drying. Moreover, the application of microwave power resulted in less reduction of Vitamin A and better retention of the surface color of the bitter gourd. Considering the drying time and quality attributes, microwave assisted convective drying would be a very promising alternative drying technique for bitter gourd.


Bitter gourd Ascorbic acid Total phenolic content Antioxidant activity Drying kinetics 



The first author acknowledges the Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India, with thanks for providing INSPIRE fellowship.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Post-Harvest Engineering & Technology, Faculty of Agricultural SciencesAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia

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