Effect of Agaricus bisporus polysaccharide flour and inulin on the antioxidant and structural properties of gluten-free breads
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Enrichment of gluten-free bread (GFB) with mushroom polysaccharide and prebiotic is necessary to enhance its organoleptic and health attributes. This work investigated the enrichment effect of the GFB with Agaricus bisporus polysaccharide (ABP) flour and inulin. Volatile compounds, as well as the antioxidant and structural properties of the fortified GFB were evaluated. Sweet potato-glutinous rice flour was fortified with ABP flour and the same with inulin at different levels (3, 6 and 9%), besides a constant percentage of xanthan gum (0.5%) was added to all the blends. Addition of ABP flour resulted in higher levels of volatile compounds compared to inulin addition and the control. ABP flour formulation (F3) had the highest total phenolic content (19.05 mg GAE/g), reducing power (5.31 mg/mL, EC50 value), DPPH (6.85 mg/mL, EC50 value), ABTS (8.86 mg/mL, EC50 value) radical-scavenging activities, and β-carotene bleaching (13.22 mg/mL, EC50 value). Conversely, the control and inulin formulation (F1) showed the lowest levels of these activities. The micrographs of the ABP flour formulations showed polyhedral, aggregated, and some spherical granules, whereas inulin formulations revealed spherical granules bound together with deformed granules. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the amide I band and both α- and β-glycosidic linkages. The current findings exhibited that ABP flour and inulin had good attributes to improve the antioxidant activity of GFB and modify its structural characteristics.
KeywordsGluten-free bread Antioxidant activity Volatile compounds Mushroom polysaccharide flour SEM FTIR spectroscopy
We would like to thank all co-authors to their contributions in this research, in addition to the staff and students of the Research Center of Convenient Food and Quality Control, especially Dr. Jin-Rong Wang for her valuable assistance. This research was funded by Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China (Grant No. 214122).
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