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Polyphenols, methylxanthines, fatty acids and minerals in cocoa beans and cocoa products

  • Grassia Melania
  • Salvatori Giancarlo
  • Roberti Maria
  • Planeta Diego
  • Cinquanta LucianoEmail author
Original Paper
  • 39 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, the nutritional profile and some health benefit of three cocoa bean samples of different origins, including Perù, Ecuador (Criollo) and Ghana (Hybrid) and five samples of cocoa products from Criollo variety at different percentage of cocoa solids (from 70 to 100%), are investigated. The Ecuadorian beans were of the same batch used to obtain the chocolate samples (70% cocoa solids) by processing without conching. All samples were analyzed for their proximate composition, mineral content, fatty acids, total polyphenols, catechin, epicathechin theobromine and caffeine. Fatty acid profiles of the cocoa products were quite similar to those obtained in cocoa beans. The atherogenicity index in chocolate samples (0.71–0.82%) was slightly higher than the recommended values (0.50%). Among the minerals provided by chocolate that contribute most significantly to daily adequate intake, were magnesium (47–85% per 100 g for adult females) and phosphorus (39–75% per 100 g for all adults). Non-fat cocoa solids value was not correlated to flavonoid content on chocolate product labels. The two chocolate products processed at low temperatures are corresponding to the extreme values of solid cocoa concentrations (70 and 100%); nevertheless, they contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, ranging from 13.0 to 16.7 mg/g, as compared to samples with 75, 78 and 85% of solid cocoa. Modicana chocolate (70% solid cocoa), obtained without conching, showed the highest content of epicatechin (6.5 mg/g), with a reduction of about 36% compared with raw beans. The highest content of theobromine was detected in the samples with 100% solid cocoa (14.9 mg/g) and similar result was obtained for caffeine (0.48 mg/g).

Keywords

Cocoa Chocolate Epicatechin Minerals Theobromine 

Notes

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Grassia Melania
    • 1
  • Salvatori Giancarlo
    • 2
  • Roberti Maria
    • 3
  • Planeta Diego
    • 4
  • Cinquanta Luciano
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Ambiente e AlimentiUniversità del MoliseCampobassoItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Medicina e Scienze della Salute’’V. Tiberio’’Università del MoliseCampobassoItaly
  3. 3.ARPAm MoliseCampobassoItaly
  4. 4.Dipartimento Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e ForestaliUniversità di Palermo, Viale delle ScienzePalermoItaly

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