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Measurement of anticancer, antidiabetic and anticholinergic properties of sumac (Rhus coriaria): analysis of its phenolic compounds by LC–MS/MS

  • Hatice Tohma
  • Ahmet Altay
  • Ekrem KöksalEmail author
  • Ahmet Ceyhan Gören
  • İlhami Gülçin
Original Paper

Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate Sumac (Rhus coriaria) for anticancer, antidiabetic, anticholinergic activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Two solvents, water and ethanol, were used for extraction. For anticancer activity, the extracts were tested against human cancer cell lines including HT-29 and MCF-7. The cell growth inhibition rate was measured via XTT assay. The antidiabetic activity of the sumac extracts was measured by the inhibition of α-glycosidase and α-amylase enzymes, whereas the anticholinergic activity was measured via the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteau and the aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was used for the separation, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in the samples. The ethanolic extract had higher phenolic and phenolic contents than aqueous extract. It exhibited substantial antiproliferative, antidiabetic and anticholinergic activities. The aqueous extract of sumac showed moderate therapeutic efficiency in all the preformed assays. LC–MS/MS study revealed fumaric acid as a main compound in both the ethanolic (452.78 mg/kg) and aqueous (180.72 mg/kg) extracts. These results suggest that sumac may have health-enhancing effects and act as inhibitors of certain enzymes or interfering with some cellular pathways.

Keywords

Sumac Rhus coriaria Anticancer activity Anticholinergic activity α-Glycosidase α-Amylase 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hatice Tohma
    • 1
  • Ahmet Altay
    • 1
  • Ekrem Köksal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ahmet Ceyhan Gören
    • 2
  • İlhami Gülçin
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Science, Department of ChemistryErzincan Binali Yıldırım UniversityErzincanTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Basic Pharmaceutical SciencesBezmialem Vakif UniversityFatihTurkey
  3. 3.Faculty of Science, Department of ChemistryAtatürk UniversityErzurumTurkey

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