Dough browning inhibition of multigrain Indian flatbread (chapatti) using a combination of chemical and microwave treatment

  • Anamika Banerji
  • Laxmi Ananthanarayan
  • S. S. Lele
Original Paper


Chapatti is whole wheat based unleavened flatbread which is consumed as a staple in most parts of India. Multigrain variants of chapatti are becoming popular with increased health awareness. The process of making chapatti is tedious; hence the practice of storing chapatti dough under refrigeration is common in many households. However, during storage the dough surface undergoes significant browning which is undesirable. The present study reports browning inhibition of multigrain dough by incorporating chemical inhibitors along with microwave treatment of flour. Browning was estimated in terms of brightness (HunterLab L* values) of the surface of dough stored at different temperatures (28 ± 2, 4 and − 18 °C). Additives such as ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA) and L-cysteine (L-cys) were used singly and in combinations. Combinations of 0.3% AA + 90 ppm L-cys and 0.3% CA + AA (1:2 w/w) were effective in browning inhibition. Microwave (80 s) treatment to multigrain flour reduced polyphenol oxidase activity by 39% and peroxidase activity by 66% which helped to retard dough browning. Combination of microwave (80 s) and additives (0.3% CA + AA on 1:2 w/w basis) was found to be the most effective approach due to a synergistic effect. L* values were 61.08 and 60.72 for combination treated dough, while 47.92 and 50.71 for control dough at 96 h, 4 °C and at 30 days, − 18 °C respectively. The treatments did not adversely affect dough properties and the final product (chapatti) had no significant variation in texture and sensory acceptability.


Chapatti dough Multigrain Browning inhibition Microwave treatment Additives 



Authors would like to thank University Grants Commission (UGC) for funding this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

Article does not include any studies with animal or human subjects.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anamika Banerji
    • 1
  • Laxmi Ananthanarayan
    • 1
  • S. S. Lele
    • 1
  1. 1.Food Engineering and Technology DepartmentInstitute of Chemical TechnologyMumbaiIndia

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