Enzyme-assisted extraction of Momordica balsamina L. fruit phenolics: process optimized by response surface methodology

  • Rahman Qadir
  • Farooq Anwar
  • Fozia Batool
  • Muhammad Mushtaq
  • Abdul Jabbar
Original Paper


The present research work appraises the effect of different enzyme formulations (zympex-014, kemzyme dry-plus and natuzyme) under optimized set of experimental conditions such as time (30–90 min), temperature (25–75 °C), pH (6–9) and solid/enzyme ratio (0.5–6.5%) following central composite design (CCD) on extraction of phenolic bioactives from Momordica balsamina fruit (balsam apple). Out of enzyme complexes employed in this study, zympex-014 offered maximum extraction yield (42.6 g/100 g) at optimized conditions including time (60 min), temperature (50 °C), pH (7.5) and enzyme concentration (6.5%) using CCD. Artificial neural network (ANN) was trained computationally based on the experimental data to predict the optimum BAF extract yield for zympex-014. Significant morphological changes in the cell wall of balsam apple fruit (BAF) were elucidated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before (control) and after enzymatic treatment. Relatively a superior antioxidant activity was exhibited by extracts from enzyme-treated BAF relative to the control. GC/MS profiling authenticated the presence of ferulic acid (2.30), quercitin (1.48), benzoic acid (0.41) and gallic acid (0.26 μg/mL) as major potent phenolic bioactives in zympex-014 -assisted BAF extract. While p-coumaric (0.05), m-coumaric acid (0.03) and sinapic acid (0.01 μg/mL) were found in lesser amount. The results of the present study indicated that the devised RSM-based optimized enzyme-assisted extraction, using zympex-014 among others, had significant positive effect on liberation of bound phenolics and thereby enhancing antioxidant potential of BAF extracts.


Momordica balsamina Linn Response surface methodology Artificial neural networking SEM GC/MS 

Supplementary material

11694_2018_9982_MOESM1_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 12 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rahman Qadir
    • 1
    • 2
  • Farooq Anwar
    • 1
  • Fozia Batool
    • 1
  • Muhammad Mushtaq
    • 3
  • Abdul Jabbar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of LahoreSargodhaPakistan
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryGovernment College University LahoreLahorePakistan

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