Comparative study of phytochemical profile between Ziziphus spina christi and Ziziphus lotus from Morocco

  • Ezzouhra El Maaiden
  • Youssef El Kharrassi
  • Khadija Moustaid
  • Abdel Khalid Essamadi
  • Boubker NasserEmail author
Original Paper


Ziziphus spina-christi and Z. lotus are very important medicinal plants of the family Rhamnaceae. The need for accurate identification and authentication of powdered crude drug samples in the face of growing world demand for herbal products cannot be over-emphasized. The aim of this study was to determine the content of essential nutrients and phytochemical compounds (total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and anthocyanins) in the fruits, pulps, seeds and almonds of the two species of Ziziphus (Z. spina-christi and Z. lotus). Six-phase sequential extraction using six different solvents was done to totally and efficiently extract the phytochemical components from the different parts of the plants and then the filtrates were pooled together to produce the powders which were thereafter analyzed. The proximate composition showed that Z. spina-christi fruit and pulp had higher moisture content, while its almonds had higher lipid and crude protein contents (13.78 and 30.15% respectively), and seed had higher ash content (4.91%) as compared to those of Z. lotus. The highest carbohydrate content was observed in the fruit and pulp of Z. lotus (83%). The greatest levels of polyphenols and tannins were found in aqueous extract of the seeds and almonds of Z. spina-christi. Flavonoid and anthocyanins contents were found to be highest in methanolic extract of the seeds and almonds of Z. lotus. Results obtained in this study may be used for identification and authentication purposes, and in the development of a monograph for these medicinal plants.


Ziziphus Species Polyphenols Carbohydrate Lipids Proteins 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Ezzouhra El Maaiden
    • 1
  • Youssef El Kharrassi
    • 2
  • Khadija Moustaid
    • 3
  • Abdel Khalid Essamadi
    • 1
  • Boubker Nasser
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biochemistry and Neurosciences, Department of BiologyUniversity Hassan ISettatMorocco
  2. 2.AgroBioSciences DivisionMohammed VI Polytechnic University (UM6P)Ben GuérirMorocco
  3. 3.Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Environment, Department of ChemistryUniversity Hassan ISettatMorocco

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