Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 2615–2625 | Cite as

Investigation of water adsorption and thermodynamic properties of stevia powder

  • Nadia Hidar
  • Mourad Ouhammou
  • Ali Idlimam
  • Abderrahim Jaouad
  • Mohamed Bouchdoug
  • Abdelkader Lamharrar
  • Mohammed Kouhila
  • Mostafa Mahrouz
Original Paper


Stevia rebaudiana is a natural non-caloric substitute to conventional sugar. Moisture adsorption isotherms of stevia powder, a sweet plant, were investigated at three different temperatures (30, 40 and 50 °C) using a gravimetric technique. The sorption isotherms were found to be typical type II sigmoid with the sorption capacity decreasing with increasing temperature. Experimental data were fitted using GAB model, the monolayer moisture content tended to decrease as temperature increased. Moreover, these experimental data curves allow us to calculate the value of the optimal water activity for the conservation and to determine the surface area of powder studied. The isosteric heat of sorption, sorption entropy and spreading pressure were determined as a function of moisture content. The net isosteric heat of adsorption and differential entropy decreased with increasing moisture contents. A plot of differential heat versus entropy satisfied the enthalpy–entropy compensation theory. The spreading pressures increased with increasing water activity but decreased with increasing temperature.


Adsorption isotherms GAB equation modelling Stevia powder Surface area Thermodynamic properties Water activity 

List of symbols


Xeq equilibrium moisture content (% d.b)


Area of a water molecule (1.06 × 10−19 m2)


Avogadro’s number (6 × 1026 molecules mol−1)


Boltzmann constant (1.38 × 10−23 J K−1)


Mean relative error (%)


Experimental equilibrium moisture content (% d.b)


Predicted equilibrium moisture content (% d.b)


Guggenheim Anderson de Boer


Monolayer moisture content


Vapour pressure of pure water at the same temperature (atm)

\(\Delta {H_d}\)

Isosteric heat of sorption (kJ mol−1)


Net isosteric heat of sorption (kJ mol−1)


Entropy of sorption (J mol−1 K−1)


Universal gas constant (8.3145 J mol−1 K−1)


Free enthalpy at the isokinetic temperature (J mol−1)


Mass of dry matter (g)


Mass of wet matter (g)


Water activity


Temperature (°C)


Dry weight basis


Coefficient of determination


Number of data points


Isokinetic temperature (K)






Partial pressure of water in the food (atm)


Residual of estimate


Harmonic temperature (K)


Spreading pressure (J m−2)


Water activity optimal

C, K, Xm

GAB model coefficients



The authors would like to acknowledge the Ministry of Higher Education, Scientific Research and Professional training of Morocco- Rabat, Priority Research Program (PPR –B –Mahrouz –FS –UCA – Marrakech) and we thank Mr Omar EL HROD from MOGADOR Cooperative (ESSAOUIRA, Morocco) for his assistance in obtaining the sample during this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadia Hidar
    • 1
  • Mourad Ouhammou
    • 1
  • Ali Idlimam
    • 2
  • Abderrahim Jaouad
    • 1
  • Mohamed Bouchdoug
    • 3
  • Abdelkader Lamharrar
    • 2
  • Mohammed Kouhila
    • 2
  • Mostafa Mahrouz
    • 1
  1. 1.ERIDDECV (Research Team of Innovation and Sustainable Development & Expertise in Green Chemistry), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences SemlaliaCadi Ayyad UniversityMarrakeshMorocco
  2. 2.LESPAM Laboratory of Solar Energy and Medicinal Plants, Teacher’s Training CollegeCadi Ayyad UniversityMarrakechMorocco
  3. 3.REMATOP (Research Laboratory on Materials Reactivity and Process Optimization), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences SemlaliaCadi Ayyad UniversityMarrakechMorocco

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