Effect of gamma irradiation and microwave heating treatments on microbial load and antioxidant potentials in cinnamon, fennel and hot pepper

  • Amro B. Hassan
  • Salma M. Ahmed
  • Khitma A. Sir Elkhatim
  • Tilal S. Abdelhalim
  • Samson O. Fawale
  • Oladipupo Q. Adiamo
  • Isam A. Mohamed AhmedEmail author
Original Paper


This study was carried out to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation (5 and 10 kGy) and microwave treatments (500 W for 45 and 90 s) on the microbial load (bacterial and fungal counts), total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC) and antioxidant activity of cinnamon, fennel and hot pepper. Both treatments reduced the total counts of bacteria and fungi in the three spices (P < 0.05). Gamma irradiation at the applied doses reduced TPC in hot pepper, TFC and antioxidant activity in all spices, while it increased TPC in cinnamon and fennel at 10 kGy (P < 0.05). Microwave treatment also reduced the TPC in hot pepper, TFC in cinnamon and fennel, and antioxidant activity in all spices, whereas it increased TPC in cinnamon (P < 0.05). Thus, compositional differences should be considered when treating spices with gamma rays and microwave to avoid losses in antioxidant power of these important phytochemicals.


Antioxidants Gamma irradiation Microbial load Microwave Spices 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amro B. Hassan
    • 1
  • Salma M. Ahmed
    • 2
  • Khitma A. Sir Elkhatim
    • 1
  • Tilal S. Abdelhalim
    • 3
  • Samson O. Fawale
    • 4
  • Oladipupo Q. Adiamo
    • 5
  • Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Environment and Natural Resources and Desertification Research Institute (ENDRI)National Center for ResearchKhartoumSudan
  2. 2.Sudanese Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC)KhartoumSudan
  3. 3.White Nile Research StationAgricultural Research Corporation, ARCWad MadaniSudan
  4. 4.Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine ResearchLagosNigeria
  5. 5.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Food and Agricultural SciencesKing Saud UniversityRiyadhKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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