Advertisement

Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 1690–1698 | Cite as

Antioxidant properties of industrial heat-treated milk

  • Pamela ManziEmail author
  • Alessandra Durazzo
Original Paper

Abstract

Milk is a source of antioxidant compounds in a delicate balance between anti- and pro-oxidative processes. This research aims at evaluating the antioxidant properties of industrial heat treated milk (UHT, Microfiltered and High Quality Pasteurized) with particular attention towards the characterization of unsaponifiable fraction, rich in antioxidant compounds, and its contribution to radical scavenging activity. Total polyphenol content, FRAP, DPPH and colour, often related to antioxidant properties, were performed on milk. Moreover, the unsaponifiable fraction of milk samples was studied for: (a) α-tocopherol, β-carotene, retinol isomers, cholesterol and two previously developed indices Degree of Retinol Isomerization (DRI) and Degree of Antioxidant Protection (DAP); (b) DPPH assay; (c) a qualitative analysis of its major functional groups by Fourier Transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) on Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR). UHT milk showed the highest values in all assays, probably due to the development of antioxidant compounds, that occur during this severe heat-treatment and confirmed by a moderate correlation (r = 0.6791) between DPPH and b*(yellowness). On unsaponifiable fraction, differences were detected on 13-cis retinol and confirmed by DRI index and specific vibrations of functional groups of antioxidants were identified in FTIR-ATR spectra.

Keywords

Industrially heat-treated milk Antioxidant properties Unsaponifiable fraction FTIR-ATR 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thanks Dr. Francesca Melini for the linguistic revision of the manuscript. This research was financially supported by Ministero delle Politiche Agricole, Alimentari e Forestali (MiPAAF) Project: QUALIFU “Qualità Alimentare e Funzionale” (D.M. 2087/7303/09).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical approval

Preliminary results of this research were awarded to Eurofir Food Forum 2016—poster competition.

References

  1. 1.
    R.L. Walzem, C.J. Dillard, J.B. German, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. 42, 353–375 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Haug, A.T. Høstmark, O.M. Harstad, Lipids Health Dis. 6, 25 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Barlowska, M. Szwajkowska, Z. Litwinczuk, J. Krol, Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 10, 291–302 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Lindmark-Mansson, B. Akesson, Br. J. Nutr. 84, 103–110 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. Kristensen, R.V. Hedegaard, J.H. Nielsen, L.H. Skibsted, J. Dairy Res. 71, 46–50 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M.S. Havemose, M.R. Weisbjerg, W.L.P. Bredie, H.D. Poulsen, J.H. Nielsen, J. Dairy Sci. 89, 1970–1980 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S.M. Donovan, J Pediatr. 149, 49–61 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Cervato, R. Cazzola, B. Cestaro, Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 50, 291–296 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Zulueta, A. Maurizi, A. Frigola, M.J. Esteve, R. Coli, G. Burini, Int. Dairy J. 19, 380–385 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Kumar, U.V.S. Teotia, A. Sanghi, Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 5, 418–422 (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    V. Bučević-Popović, I. Delaš, S. Međugorac, M. Pavela-Vrančić, T. Kulišić-Bilušić, Int. J. Dairy Technol. 67, 394–401 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Pihlanto, Int. Dairy J. 16, 1306–1314 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    T. Bayram, M. Pekmez, N. Arda, A.S. Yalçin, Talanta 75, 705–709 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    O. Power, P. Jakeman, R.J. FitzGerald, Amino Acids 12, 1–24 (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    L.M. Tong, S. Sasaki, D.J. McClements, E.A. Decker, J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 1473–1478 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.H. Nielsen, H. Ostdal, H.J. Andersen, In Free Radicals in Food: Chemistry, Nutrition and Health Effects, ed. by M. Morello, F. Shahidi, C.T. Ho (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2002), pp. 126–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Tulika, D. Deepak, Int. J. Pharm. Bio. Sci. 5, 400–408 (2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    O. Power, P. Jakeman, R.J. FitzGerald, Amino Acids 44, 797–820 (2013)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.L. Capriotti, C. Cavaliere, S. Piovesana, R. Samperi, A. Laganà, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 408, 2677–2685 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R.E. Lawson, A.R. Moss, D.I. Givens (2001) Nutr. Res. Rev. 14(1), 153–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Carocho, I.C.F.R. Ferreira, Food Chem. Toxicol. 51, 15–25 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. Noziere, B. Graulet, A. Lucas, B. Martin, P. Grolier, M. Doreau, Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 131, 418–450 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S.A.R. Paiva, R.M. Russell, J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 18, 426–433 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    G.W. Burton, M.G. Traber, Annu. Rev. Nutr. 10, 357–382 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. Pizzoferrato, P. Manzi, S. Marconi, V. Fedele, S. Claps, R. Rubino, J. Dairy Sci. 90, 4569–4574 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    P. Manzi, L. Pizzoferrato, Food Bioprocess Technol. 3, 234–238 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. Panfili, P. Manzi, L. Pizzoferrato, J. Dairy Res. 65, 253–260 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Italian Government Law. n. 169 Disciplina del trattamento e della commercializzazione del latte alimentare vaccino GU n.108 11 May (1989)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. Durazzo, P. Gabrielli, P. Manzi, Antioxidants 4, 523–532 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    V.L. Singleton, R. Orthofer, R.M. Lamuela-Raventos, Method Enzymol. 299, 152–178 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    I.F.F. Benzie, J.J. Strain, Anal. Biochem. 239, 70–76 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. Pulido, L. Bravo, F. Saura-Calixto, J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 3396–3402 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    W. Brand-Williams, M.E. Cuvelier, C. Berse, Food Sci. Technol. 28, 25–30 (1995)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    G. Panfili, P. Manzi, L. Pizzoferrato, Analyst 119, 1161–1165 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ø. Hammer, D.A.T. Harper, P.D. Ryan, PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis (2001). http://folk.uio.no/ohammer/past. Accessed July 2016
  36. 36.
    R. Apak, S. Gorinstein, V. Böhm, K.M. Schaich, M. Özyürek, K. Güçlü, Pure Appl. Chem. 85, 957–998 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. Schlesier, M. Harwat, V. Bohm, R. Bitsch, Free Radic. Res. 36, 177–187 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. Chen, H. Lindmark-Månsson, L. Gorton, B. Åkesson, Int. Dairy J. 13, 927–935 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    K. Smet, K. Raes, J. De Block, L. Herman, K. Dewettinck, K. Coudijzer, Int. Dairy J. 18, 520–530 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    S. Kuhnen, J.R. Moacyr, J.K. Mayer, B.B. Navarro, R. Trevisan, L.A. Honorato, M. Maraschin, L.C. Pinheiro Machado Filho, J. Food Sci. Agric. 94, 3110–3117 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    J.K. Amamcharla, L.E. Mezger, Int. Dairy J. 34, 177–179 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    S. Calligaris, L. Manzocco, M. Anese, M.C. Nicoli, Int. Dairy J. 14, 421–427 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    A. Parrella, E. Caterino, M. Cangiano, E. Criscuolo, C. Russo, M. Lavorgna, M. Isidori, Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 47, 2493–2502 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    F.J. Morales, S. Jimenez-Perez, Food Chem. 72, 119–125 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    L. Manzocco, S. Calligaris, D. Mastrocola, M.C. Nicoli, C.R. Lerici, Trends Food Sci. Technol. 11, 340–346 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    D. Markowicz Bastos, É. Monaro, É. Siguemoto, M. Séfora, In Food Industrial Processes- Methods and Equipment, ed. By B. Valdez, doi: 10.5772/31925, 2012, http://www.intechopen.com/books/food-industrial-processes-methods-and-equipment/maillard-reaction-products-in-processed-food-pros-and-cons, Accessed July 2016, p. 281–300
  47. 47.
    D. Huang, B. Ou, R.L. Prior, J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 1841–1856 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    P. Terpinc, B. Ceh, N. Ulrih, H. Abramovic, Ind. Crops Prod. 39, 210–217 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    L.M. Magalhães, M.A. Segundo, S. Reis, J. Lima, A. Rangel, J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 5241–5246 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. Baldi, L. Pinotti, In Bioactive Components of Milk, ed. by Z. Bosze (Springer, New York, 2008), p. 109–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    P.A. Murphy, R. Engelhardt, S.E. Smith, J. Agric. Food Chem. 36, 592–595 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Y. Yoshida, E. Niki, N. Noguchi, Chem. Phys. Lipids 123, 63–75 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    M.K. Ahmede, J.K. Daun, R. Przybylski, J. Food Comp. Anal. 18, 359–364 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Y.B.C. Man, W. Ammawath, M.E.S. Mirghani, Food Chem. 90, 323–327 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    A.M. Juncan, F. Fetea, C. Socaciu, Environ. Eng. Manag. J. 13, 105–113 (2014)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    L.E. Rodriguez-Saona, M.E. Allendorf, Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 2, 467–483 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria (CREA)Centro di ricerca Alimenti e Nutrizione (AN)RomeItaly

Personalised recommendations